The Tempest
By William Shakespeare

Markup and correction by Students and Staff of Marymount University, Leane Dondapati, Tonya Howe
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Sources

London : Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed. Blount, 1623Page images are drawn from the First Folio copy 68 held by the Folger Shakespeare Library, available at https://www.folger.edu/the-shakespeare-first-folio-folger-copy-no-68. For more information about the First Folio, visit the Folger Shakespeare Library page https://www.folger.edu/shakespeare/first-folio.Online: iBiblio, 1999Base xml for this digital edition drawn from https://www.ibiblio.org/xml/examples/shakespeare/tempest.xml.

Text placed in the public domain by Moby Lexical Tools, 1992. Original SGML markup by Jon Bosak, 1992-1994. XML version by Jon Bosak, 1996-1998. XML updated for LiC guidelines, 2022. Page breaks have been added according to the First Folio. Line numbers have been added according to the Riverside Shakespeare (1974).


Editorial Statements

Research informing these annotations draws on publicly-accessible resources, with links provided where possible. Annotations also include common knowledge, defined as information that can be found in multiple reliable sources. If you notice an error in these annotations, please contact lic.open.anthology@gmail.com.

Base text for this edition of The Tempest uses public domain transcription by Moby Lexical Tools, 1992, converted into XML by Jon Bosak. Ligatured forms are not encoded. Missing and inferred stage directions added by the Riverside are indicated with square brackets.

Hyphenation has not been retained, except where necessary for the sense of the word.

Page breaks have been retained. Catchwords, signatures, running headers, and columns have not. Where pages break in the middle of a word, the complete word has been indicated prior to the page beginning. When it is unclear where a line ends, or whether the text is in prose or poetry, modern editions have been consulted.

Line breaks, numbering, stage directions, and textual emendations have been made to ensure that this edition corresponds with the Rivierside Shakespeare edition of The Tempest.


Citation

Shakespeare, William. "The Tempest". ; Mr. William Shakespeares comedies, histories, & tragedies: published according to the true originall copies., Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed. Blount, 1623 , pp 1-19 . Literature in Context: An Open Anthology. http://anthology.lib.virginia.edu/work/Shakespeare/shakespeare-tempest. Accessed: 2024-04-22T08:38:42.472Z

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[TP]
MR. WILLIAM
SHAKESPEARES
COMEDIES,
HISTORIES, &
TRAGEDIES.
Published according to the True Originall Copies.
London
Printed by Isaac Jaggard, and Ed. Blount.
1623.

The Scene, [A ship at sea and] an uninhabited IslandislandislandDuring the early modern period, knowledge of the world was expanding greatly. It is likely, given the plot of the tale, that the fictional Island Prospero is stranded on is somewhere in the Mediterranean sea. Throughout the play, you will note references to many places across the globe, including Tunisia, Algeria, the Island of Bermuda, and "Arabia." By 1611, when The Tempest was first performed, England had established colonies in the Americas; the Spanish and Portuguese were the most powerful imperial force in Western Europe, until the 1588 defeat of the Spanish Armada, which marked the rise of the early British Empire. The 16th and 17th centuries are often thought of as an age of exploration; explorers traveled the world, bringing back strange objects and stories to spur scientific discovery and commerce, including the traffic in human beings. People during Shakespeare’s time lived during an era that also saw the wide dissemination of maps helped by the invention of the printing press. Through cartography, people could visually comprehend the geographical layout of lands familiar and new. To learn more about exploration and map-making in the early modern period, see the Folger Shakespeare Library's exhibition site, "Mapping Early Modern Worlds. - [TH].

Alonso, King of Naples
Sebastian his brother
Prospero, the right Duke of Milan
Antonio, his brother the usurping Duke of Milan
Ferdinand, son to the King of Naples
Gonzalo, an honest old Counsellor
Adrian and Francisco, Lords
Caliban, a savage and deformed Slave
Trinculo, a Jester
Stephano, a drunken Butler
Master of a Ship
Boatswain
Mariners
Miranda, daughter to Prospero
Ariel, an airy Spirit
Iris, Ceres, Juno, Nymphs, Reapers, [presenting] Spirits
1 The Tempest Act I, Scene I. A tempestuous noise of thunder and lightningthunder thunderIn 1611, when Shakespeare's The Tempest was first performed, theatres used a mechanism known as a thunder machine, which was essentially a long wooden box balanced like a seesaw, containing a large cannon ball that when rolled around produced a loud noise resembling thunder. To create the effect of lightening, stage hands would prepare powdered resin which would be thrown onto a flame. Lighting a firecracker attached to a wire extending from the roof of the stage to the floor would create the illusion of a lightening bolt ("Special Effects"). - [LD]. Enter a Ship-master and a Boatswain
Master
1 Boatswain!boatswainboatswainPronounced "bosun," a boatswain is the person who manages the crew of a ship and the ship's equipment (OED n.1). - [LD]
Boatswain
2Here, master: what cheer?
Master
3Good, speak to the mariners: fall to't, yarelyyarelyyarelyNow archaic, yarely derives from the Old English and means quick or nimble action (OED adv). - [LD], 4or we run ourselves aground: bestir, bestir.
Exit Enter Mariners
Boatswain
5Heigh, my hearts! cheerly, cheerly, my hearts! 6yare, yare! Take in the topsail. Tend to the 7master's whistle. Blow, till thou burst thy windburstburstHere, the boatswain is directly addressing the tempest, challenging it to rage until it is out of wind, possibly in an attempt to encourage the men on deck to remain strong. - [LD],8if room enough!
Enter Alonso, Sebastian, Antonio, Ferdinand, Gonzalo, and others
Alonso
9Good boatswain, have care. Where's the master? 10Play the menplayplayAccording to the OED (I.1), "play" in this sense was used as an intransitive verb in the 1400s, meaning to engage something or someone in activity. Here, Alonso commands the boatswain to put his crew to work. - [LD].
Boatswain
11I pray now, keep below.
Antonio
12Where is the master, boatswain?
Boatswain
13Do you not hear him? You mar our labour: keep your14cabins: you do assist the storm.
Gonzalo
15Nay, good, be patient.
Boatswain
16When the sea is. Hence! What cares these roarers 17for the name of king? To cabin: silence! trouble us not.
Gonzalo
18Good, yet remember whom thou hast aboard.
Boatswain
19None that I more love than myself. You are a 20counsellor; if you can command these elements to 21silence, and work the peace of the present, we will 22not hand a rope more; use your authority: if you 23cannot, give thanks you have lived so long, and make 24yourself ready in your cabin for the mischance of 25the hour, if it so hap. Cheerly, good hearts! Out26of our way, I say.
Exit
Gonzalo
27I have great comfort from this fellow: methinks he28hath no drowning markmarkmarkGonzalo takes comfort from his belief that the boatswain's destiny in death is fated for the gallows (death by hanging), which disqualifies him for a death caused by drowning. - [LD] upon him; his complexion is29perfect gallows. Stand fast, good Fate, to his 30hanging: make the rope of his destiny our cable, 31for our own doth little advantage. If he be not 32born to be hanged, our case is miserable.
Exeunt Re-enter Boatswain
Boatswain
33Down with the topmast! yare! lower, lower! Bring 34her to try with main-course. 35A plague upon this howling! they are louder than 36the weather or our office. 37Yet again! what do you here? Shall we give o'er38and drown? Have you a mind to sink?
Sebastian
39A pox o' your throat, you bawling, blasphemous,40incharitable dog!
Boatswain
41Work you then.
Antonio
42Hang, cur! hang, you whoreson, insolent noisemaker! 43We are less afraid to be drowned than thou art.
Gonzalo
44I'll warrant him for drowning; though the ship were 45no stronger than a nutshell and as leaky as an 46unstanched wenchunstanchedunstanchedGonzalo is comparing the ship to "an / unstanched wench." According to Shakespeare Navigator, which draws on the OED definition of "staunch," calling the boat an "unstanched wench" may be comparing the boat to a woman (a "wench") on her menstrual cycle. However, the verb "stanch" also suggests satisfying a desire (OED v3a), and it derives from the Old French that also means to make a ship watertight. - [LD].
Boatswain
47Lay her a-hold, a-hold! set her two coursescoursescoursesThe Boatswain calls for the ship to be directed "two courses off to / sea." According to the OED, "two courses" has a specific nautical meaning, referring to the points on the compass where the ship is directed (course, n. 12a-b). - [MUStudStaff] off to 48sea again; lay her off.
Enter Mariners wet
Mariners
49All lost! to prayers, to prayers! all lost!
Boatswain
50What, must our mouths be coldcoldcoldAccording to the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, the boatswain is wondering if, even if after all his efforts, the sailors must drown, or have their mouths become cold from drowning. - [LD]?
Gonzalo
51The king and prince at prayers! let's assist them, 52For our case is as theirs.
Sebastian
53I'm out of patience.
Antonio
54We are merely cheated of our lives by drunkards: 55This wide-chapp'd rascal--would thou mightst lie drowning 56The washing of ten tidestidetideThe washing of a tide is the act of sea water flowing up the shore during a high tide (OED, wash, III.12b). The Arden edition of The Tempest notes that pirates would be condemned to hang at the shore for the length of three tides. Antonio here is extending that length of time for the boatswain, whom he imagines would "lie drowning / [for the] washing of ten tides." - [LD]!
Gonzalo
57He'll be hang'd yet,58Though every drop of water swear against it 59And gape at widest to glut him.
A confused noise within: 'Mercy on us!'-- 'We splitsplit splitThe ship is splitting in half. - [LD], we split!'--'Farewell, my wife and children!'-- 'Farewell, brother!'--'We split, we split, we split!'
Antonio
60Let's all sink with the king.
Sebastian
61Let's take leave of him.
Exeunt Antonio and Sebastian
Gonzalo
62Now would I give a thousand furlongs of sea for an 63acre of barren ground, long heath, brown furze, any 64thing. The wills above be done! but I would fain 65die a dry death.
Exeunt
Scene II. [The island. Before Prospero's cell.] Enter Prospero and Miranda
Miranda
1If by your art, my dearest fatherDeeDeePhotograph showing alchemical items belonging to John Dee, used in early modern magic, from the British Library.Source: Dee's spirit mirror and other alchemical objectsIt is often thought that Prospero was modeled by Shakespeare on John Dee, a well-known polymath, magus, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. According to the British Library, a magus someone who "understands the cosmos and man's place in it [sic]" through knowledge and experimentation in fields such as chemistry (then alchemy), mathematics, astrology, and hermetic studies of religion and culture. A "controversial figure" and force of both good and evil, the magus sought to attain ultimate wisdom about the working of the universe. The image included here, from the British Library, shows (right to left) Dee’s spirit mirror showstone, a crystal ball, mystically engraved wax discs, a wooden case, and an engraved gold disc illustrating a vision of Dee’s colleague, Edward Kelley. Dee's "showstone' was a reflective piece of volcanic ash he would use to conjure and converse with angels, recording his conversations into his ‘angelic diaries’. As an advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, Dee advocated for imperial expansion into the New World. To learn more about Dee's advocacy of the British Empire in the Atlantic, see Glyn Parry's scholarly article, "John Dee and the Elizabethan British Empire in Its European Context." - [MUStudStaff], you have2Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them.3The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking pitchstinkingstinkingMiranda here imagines the stormy sky raining "stinking pitch" instead of water. Pitch is a resin commonly used for waterproofing boats. - [LD],4But that the sea, mounting to the welkin's cheekwelkinwelkinThe welkin is a poetic and now archaic term referring to the sky. Miranda uses figurative language to describe the the height of the waves, which "[mount or rise] to the welkin's cheek." - [LD],5Dashes the firefirefireThe lightening. - [LD] out. O, I have suffered6With those that I saw suffer: a brave vessel,7Who had, no doubt, some noble creature in her,8Dash'd all to pieces. O, the cry did knock9Against my very heart. Poor souls, they perish'd.10Had I been any god of power, I would11Have sunk the sea within the earth or ere12It should the good ship so have swallow'd and13The fraughting souls within her.
Prospero
Be collected: 14No more amazement: tell your piteous heart15There's no harm done.
Miranda
O, woe the day!
Prospero
No harm. 16I have done nothing but in care of thee,17Of thee, my dear one, thee, my daughter, who18Art ignorant of what thou art, nought knowing19Of whence I am, nor that I am more better20Than Prospero, master of a full poor cellcellcellA very small or humble dwelling. - [LD],21And thy no greater father.
Miranda
More to know 22Did never meddle with my thoughts.
Prospero
'Tis time 23I should inform thee farther. Lend thy hand,24And pluck my magic garment from me. So:25Lie there, my art.artartProspero is speaking to his robe, calling it his "art," and suggesting to us that the robe is lain down on some surface by Miranda. - [LD]. Wipe thou thine eyes; have comfort.26The direful spectacle of the wreck, which touch'd27The very virtue of compassion in thee,28I have with such provision in mine art29So safely ordered that there is no soul--30No, not so much perdition as an hair31BetidbetidbetidBefell or happened to (OED). - [LD] to any creature in the vessel32Which thou heard'st cry, which thou saw'st sink. Sit down;33For thou must now know farther.
Miranda
You have often 34Begun to tell me what I am, but stopp'd35And left me to a bootless inquisitionbootlessbootlessIneffective questioning (OED). - [LD],36Concluding 'stay: not yet.'
Prospero
The hour's now come; 37The very minute bids thee ope thine ear;38Obey and be attentive. Canst thou remember39A time before we came unto this cell?40I do not think thou canst, for then thou wast not41Out three years old.
Miranda
Certainly, sir, I can.
Prospero
By what? by any other house or person?42Of any thing the image tell me that43Hath kept with thy remembrance.
Miranda
'Tis far off 44And rather like a dream than an assurance45That my remembrance warrants. Had I not46Four or five women once that tended me?
Prospero
47Thou hadst, and more, Miranda. But how is it48That this lives in thy mind? What seest thou else49In the dark backward and abysmabysmabysmAn immense depth, a chasm which seems to have no end (OED). - [LD] of time?50If thou remember'st aught ereaughtaughtAught is an archaic adverb which means "to any extent, in any respect, at all" (OED C.1), and "ere" means before or formerly (OED 4.a). - [LD] thou camest here,51How thou camest here thou mayst.
Miranda
But that I do not.
Prospero
52Twelve year since, Miranda, twelve year since,53Thy father was the Duke of Milan and54A prince of power.
Miranda
Sir, are not you my father?
Prospero
55Thy mother was a piece of virtue, and56She said thou wast my daughter; and thy father57Was Duke of Milan; and thou his only heir58And princess no worse issued.
Miranda
O the heavens! 59What foul play had we, that we came from thence?60Or blessed was't we did?
Prospero
Both, both, my girl: 61By foul play, as thou say'st, were we heaved thence,62But blessedly holpholpholpThis is the past participle of the word "help," spelled this way from the 14th to the 17th century (OED). - [LD] hither.
Miranda
O, my heart bleeds 63To think o' the teenteenteenNow rarely used, teen is a noun that refers to suffering or pain (OED n. 2a). - [LD] that I have turn'd you to,64Which is from my remembrance! Please you, farther.
Prospero
65My brother and thy uncle, call'd Antonio--66I pray thee, mark me--that a brother should67Be so perfidious!--he whom next thyself68Of all the world I loved and to him put69The manage of my state; as at that time70Through all the signoriessignoriessignories A historical term referring to governing bodies or assemblies specifically of an Italian state (OED n, 5). - [LD] it was the first71And Prospero the prime duke, being so reputed72In dignity, and for the liberal arts73Without a parallel; those being all my study,74The government I cast upon my brother75And to my state grew stranger, being transported76And rapt in secret studies. Thy false uncle--77Dost thou attend me?
Miranda
Sir, most heedfully.
Prospero
78Being once perfected how to grant suits,79How to deny them, who to advance and who80To trash for over-topping, new created81The creatures that were mine, I say, or changed 'em,82Or else new form'd 'em; having both the key83Of officer and office, set all hearts i' the state84To what tune pleased his ear; that now he was85The ivy which had hid my princely trunk,86And suck'd my verdureverdureverdure According to the OED, this refers to the freshness of a flourishing green plant. - [LD] out on't. Thou attend'st not.
Miranda
87O, good sir, I do.
Prospero
I pray thee, mark me. 88I, thus neglecting worldly ends, all dedicated89To closeness and the bettering of my mind90With that which, but by being so retired,91O'er-prized all popular rate, in my false brother92Awaked an evil nature; and my trust,93Like a good parent, did beget of him94A falsehood in its contrary as great95As my trust was; which had indeed no limit,96A confidence sans bound. He being thus lorded,97Not only with what my revenue yielded,98But what my power might else exact, like one99Who having into truth, by telling of it,100Made such a sinner of his memory,101To credit his own lie, he did believe102He was indeed the duke; out o' the substitution103And executing the outward face of royalty,104With all prerogative: hence his ambition growing--105Dost thou hear?
Miranda
Your tale, sir, would cure deafness.
Prospero
106To have no screen between this part he play'd107And him he play'd it for, he needs will be108Absolute Milan. Me, poor man, my library109Was dukedom large enough: of temporal royalties110He thinks me now incapable; confederates--111So dry he was for sway--wi' the King of Naples112To give him annual tribute, do him homage,113Subject his coronet to his crown and bend114The dukedom yet unbow'd--alas, poor Milan!--115To most ignobleignobleignobleAccording to the OED, ignoble is defined as being dishonorable in terms of character or intent. - [LD] stooping.
Miranda
O the heavens!
Prospero
116Mark his condition and the event; then tell me117If this might be a brother.
Miranda
I should sin 118To think but nobly of my grandmother:119Good wombs have borne bad sons.
Prospero
Now the condition. 120The King of Naples, being an enemy121To me inveterateinveterateinveterate Entrenched, long-standing, persistent, with the suggestion of disease (OED). - [LD], hearkens my brother's suit;122Which was, that he, in lieu o' the premises123Of homage and I know not how much tribute,124Should presently extirpate me and mine125Out of the dukedom and confer fair Milan126With all the honours on my brother: whereon,127A treacherous army levied, one midnight128Fated to the purpose did Antonio open129The gates of Milan, and, i' the dead of darkness,130The ministers for the purpose hurried thence131Me and thy crying self.
Miranda
Alack, for pity! 132I, not remembering how I cried out then,133Will cry it o'er again: it is a hint134That wrings mine eyes to't.
Prospero
Hear a little further135And then I'll bring thee to the present business136Which now's upon's; without the which this story137Were most impertinent.
Miranda
Wherefore did they not 138That hour destroy us?
Prospero
Well demanded, wench: 139My tale provokes that question. Dear, they durstdurstdurst An archaic past tense of the verb "to dare" (OED). - [LD] not,140So dear the love my people bore me, nor set141A mark so bloody on the business, but142With colours fairer painted their foul ends.143In few, they hurried us aboard a barkbarkbarkA bark is a small boat. - [LD],144Bore us some leagues to sea; where they prepared145A rotten carcass of a boat, not rigg'd,146Nor tackle, sail, nor mast; the very rats147Instinctively had quit it: there they hoist us,148To cry to the sea that roar'd to us, to sigh149To the winds whose pity, sighing back again,150Did us but loving wrong.
Miranda
Alack, what trouble 151Was I then to you!
Prospero
O, a cherubimcherubim cherubimA cherub is a biblical angel, with a related sense common in the early 17th century that also means a beloved woman (OED n. 5b). - [LD] 152Thou wast that did preserve me. Thou didst smile.152Infused with a fortitude from heaven,154When I have deck'd the sea with drops full salt,155Under my burthenburthenburthenAn alternative spelling of burden. - [LD] groan'd; which raised in me156An undergoing stomach, to bear up157Against what should ensue.
Miranda
How came we ashore?
Prospero
158By Providence divine.159Some food we had and some fresh water that160A noble Neapolitan, Gonzalo,161Out of his charity, being then appointed162Master of this design, did give us, with163Rich garments, linens, stuffs and necessaries,164Which since have steaded much; so, of his gentleness,165Knowing I loved my books, he furnish'd me166From mine own library with volumes that167I prize above my dukedom.
Miranda
Would I might 168But ever see that man!
Prospero
168Now I arise:169Sit still, and hear the last of our sea-sorrow.170Here in this island we arrived; and here171Have I, thy schoolmaster, made thee more profit172Than other princesses can that have more time173For vainer hours and tutors not so careful.
Miranda
174Heavens thank you for't! And now, I pray you, sir,175For still 'tis beating in my mind, your reason176For raising this sea-storm?
Prospero
Know thus far forth. 177By accident most strange, bountiful Fortune,178Now my dear lady, hath mine enemies179Brought to this shore; and by my presciencepresciencepresciencePrescience is both a quality attributed to God and the characteristic of foresight that a human might possess (OED). - [LD]180I find my zenithzenithzenithA term from astronomy, the zenith is the highest point the sun or moon reaches in the sky (OED). - [LD] doth depend upon181A most auspicious star, whose influence182If now I court not but omit, my fortunes183Will ever after droop. Here cease more questions:184Thou art inclined to sleep; 'tis a good dulness,185And give it waygivegiveThe Arden edition of The Tempest glosses this as "succumb to it." Prospero is commanding Miranda to fall asleep. - [LD]: I know thou canst not choose.186Come away, servant, come. I am ready now.187Approach, my Ariel, come.
Enter Arielariel arielLate 18th century engraving showing Miranda, Prospero, Caliban, and ArielSource: Late 18th century engraving from the Metropolitan Museum of Art showing Miranda, Prospero, Caliban, and ArielAfter Miranda falls asleep, Prospero is typically understood to put his magical robe back on as Ariel comes onto the stage. The image here, an engraving after Henry Fusili, shows a late 18th century rendition of Miranda, Prospero, Caliban, and the airy spirit Ariel (Metropolitan Museum of Art). - [LD]
Ariel
188All hail, great master! grave sir, hail! I come189To answer thy best pleasure; be't to fly,190To swim, to dive into the fire, to ride191On the curl'd clouds, to thy strong bidding task192Ariel and all his quality.
Prospero
Hast thou, spirit, 193Perform'd to point the tempest that I bade thee?
Ariel
To every article. 194I boarded the king's ship; now on the beak,195Now in the waist, the deck, in every cabin,196I flamed amazement: sometime I'ld divide,197And burn in many places; on the topmast,198The yards and bowsprit, would I flame distinctly,199Then meet and join. Jove's lightningsJovesJovesJove, more famously known as Jupiter, is the most powerful Roman God and is known to overthrow his enemies using his bolt of lightening. His Greek equivalent is Zeus. - [LD], the precursors200O' the dreadful thunder-claps, more momentary201And sight-outrunning were not; the fire and cracks202Of sulphurous roaring the most mighty Neptune203Seem to besiege and make his bold waves tremble,204Yea, his dread trident shake.
Prospero
My brave spirit! 205Who was so firm, so constant, that this coil206Would not infect his reason?
Ariel
Not a soul 207But felt a fever of the mad and play'd208Some tricks of desperation. All but mariners209Plunged in the foaming brine and quit the vessel,210Then all afire with me: the king's son, Ferdinand,211With hair up-staring,--then like reeds, not hair,--212Was the first man that leap'd; cried, 'Hell is empty213And all the devils are here.'
Prospero
Why that's my spirit! 214But was not this nighnighnighAn old fashioned way of saying nearby or almost (OED). - [LD] shore?
Ariel
Close by, my master.
Prospero
215But are they, Ariel, safe?
Ariel
Not a hair perish'd; 216On their sustaining garments not a blemish,217But fresher than before: and, as thou badest me,218In troops I have dispersed them 'bout the isle.219The king's son have I landed by himself;220Whom I left cooling of the air with sighs221In an odd angle of the isle and sitting,222His arms in this sad knotsadsadSleeping crossed armed (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest) - [LD].
Prospero
Of the king's ship 223The mariners say how thou hast disposed224And all the rest o' the fleet.
4
Ariel
Safely in harbour 225Is the king's ship; in the deep nook, where once226Thou call'dst me up at midnight to fetch dew227From the still-vex'd BermoothesBermoothesBermoothesgraphicThe Island of Bermuda was devoid of any habitation by indigenous groups before it was discovered by accident by the Spanish sailor Juan Bermúdez in 1503. A flotilla from England, includng the Sea Venture, was shipwrecked here on their way to restock the Jamestown Colony in Virginia (Virginia was named after Elizabeth I, the "Virgin Queen," and Jamestown, after King James I). The wreck of the Sea Venture in 1609, is thought to be a contemporary inspiration for The Tempest. After almost a year, the crew was largely able to leave the Island with ships they built during that time. The Island wasn’t colonized until the seventeenth century, after the crew of the Sea Venture returned to England with their tale. Enslaved people were first brought to the Island in 1617. The image included here shows a 17th century map of the Island of Bermuda by Willem Janszoon Blaeu, from the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center. Content of annotation sourced from Barry Lawrence Ruderman. - [MUStudStaff], there she's hid:228The mariners all under hatches stow'd;229Who, with a charm join'd to their suffer'd labour,230I have left asleep; and for the rest o' the fleet231Which I dispersed, they all have met again232And are upon the Mediterranean flote,234Supposing that they saw the king's ship wreck'd235And his great person perish.
Prospero
Ariel, thy charge 236Exactly is perform'd: but there's more work.237What is the time o' the day?
Ariel
Past the mid season.
Prospero
238At least two glassesglassesglassesTwo hourglasses past midday would be 2 p.m. (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]. The time 'twixt six and nowsixsixWhatever Prospero is planning must happen between 2 and 6 p.m. (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). It is important to keep in mind that in Elizabethan England, plays would have typically been performed in the afternoon. The action of the play roughly corresponds to the duratioon of the play being acted. - [MUStudStaff]239Must by us both be spent most preciously.
Ariel
240Is there more toil? Since thou dost give me pains,241Let me remember thee what thou hast promised,242Which is not yet perform'd me.
Prospero
How now? moody? 243What is't thou canst demand?
Ariel
My liberty.
Prospero
244Before the time be out? no more!
Ariel
I prithee, 245Remember I have done thee worthy service;246Told thee no lies, made thee no mistakings, served247Without or grudge or grumblings: thou didst promise248To bate me a full year.
Prospero
Dost thou forget 249From what a torment I did free thee?
Ariel
No.
Prospero
250Thou dost, and think'st it much to tread the ooze251Of the salt deep,252To run upon the sharp wind of the north,253To do me business in the veins o' the earth254When it is baked with frost.
Ariel
I do not, sir.
Prospero
255Thou liest, malignant thing! Hast thou forgot256The foul witch Sycorax, who with age and envy257Was grown into a hoophoophoopA hoop is a circular band; here, the witch Sycorax has acquired a hunchback with age (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]? hast thou forgot her?
Ariel
258No, sir.
Prospero
Thou hast. Where was she born? speak; tell me.
Ariel
259Sir, in ArgierArgierArgiergraphicSycorax seems to have been born in Argier or Algiers, the capital and chief sea port of Algeria in North Africa, on the Mediterranean coast. Invaded throughout its history, Algiers rose to prominence under the Berber dynasties in the 10th century. Algiers became became home to many Muslim and Jewish refugees escaping Spain in the begining of the 16th century. At the time The Tempest was written, Algiers was under Ottoman rule, and it became associated with piracy (Britannica). The image included here, from the Library of Congress’ first volume of Civitates Orbis Terrarum (1588), shows the white buildings of the fort--and which gave it its French name, “Alger la Blanche” (El-Bahdja in Arabic). - [LD].
Prospero
O, was she so? I must 260Once in a month recount what thou hast been,261Which thou forget'st. This damn'd witch Sycorax,262For mischiefs manifold and sorceries terrible263To enter human hearing, from Argier,264Thou know'st, was banish'd: for one thing she did265They would not take her life. Is not this true?
Ariel
266Ay, sir.
Prospero
267This blue-eyed hag was hither brought with child268And here was left by the sailors. Thou, my slave,269As thou report'st thyself, wast then her servant;270And, for thou wast a spirit too delicate271To act her earthy and abhorr'd commands,272Refusing her grand hests, she did confine thee,273By help of her more potent ministers274And in her most unmitigable rage,275Into a cloven pine; within which rift276Imprison'd thou didst painfully remain277A dozen years; within which space she died278And left thee there; where thou didst vent thy groans279As fast as mill-wheels strikestrikestrikeDenoting how frequently a millwheel blade would strike the water (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]. Then was this island--280Save for the son that she did litter here,281A freckled whelp hag-born--not honour'd with282A human shape.
Ariel
Yes, Caliban her son.
Prospero
283Dull thing, I say so; he, that Caliban284Whom now I keep in service. Thou best know'st285What torment I did find thee in; thy groans286Did make wolves howl and penetrate the breasts287Of ever angry bears: it was a torment288To lay upon the damn'd, which Sycorax289Could not again undo: it was mine art,290When I arrived and heard thee, that made gape291The pine and let thee out.
Ariel
I thank thee, master.
Prospero
292If thou more murmur'st, I will rend an oak293And peg thee in his knotty entrails till294Thou hast howl'd away twelve winters.
Ariel
Pardon, master; 295I will be correspondent to command296And do my spiriting gently.
Prospero
Do so, and after two days 297I will discharge thee.
Ariel
That's my noble master! 298What shall I do? say what; what shall I do?
Prospero
299Go make thyself like a nymph o' the sea: be subject300To no sight but thine and mine, invisibleinvisibleinvisibleHere, Prospero hands Ariel a robe that represents a sea-nymph. Whenever the audience later sees Ariel in this robe, they are to assume that he is invisible to every other character on stage save Prospero (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]301To every eyeball else. Go take this shape302And hither come in't: go, hence with diligence!303AwakeAwakeAwakeAriel exits the stage. He now speaks to Miranda. - [LD], dear heart, awake! thou hast slept well;304Awake!
Miranda
The strangeness of your story put 305HeavinessHeavinessHeavinessMiranda is unaware that her father put her to sleep. - [LD] in me.
Prospero
Shake it off. Come on; 306We'll visit CalibanCalibanCaliban graphicCaliban is a complex character. He is described as a misshapen creature, described as a "monster" "not honored with a human shape." He is treated as an inferior by the humans in the play. The image here, sourced from Wikimedia Commons, is an 18th century etching of Caliban by John Hamilton Mortimer (MET, 62.602.163). - [LD] my slave, who never307Yields us kind answer.
Miranda
'Tis a villain, sir, 308I do not love to look on.
Prospero
But, as 'tis, 309We cannot miss him: he does make our fire,310Fetch in our wood and serves in offices311That profit us. What, ho! slave! Caliban!312Thou earth, thou! speak.
Caliban
Within There's wood enough within.
Prospero
313Come forth, I say! there's other business for thee:314Come, thou tortoise! when?315Fine apparition! My quaint Ariel,316Hark in thine ear.
Ariel
My lord it shall be done.
Exit
Prospero
317Thou poisonous slave, got by the devil himself318Upon thy wicked dam, come forth!
Enter Caliban
Caliban
319As wicked dew as e'er my mother brush'd320With raven's feather from unwholesome fen321Drop on you both! A blowblowblowWarm damp air carrying airborne diseases, according to the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest. - [LD] on ye322And blister you all o'er!
Prospero
323For this, be sure, to-night thou shalt have cramps,324Side-stitches that shall pen thy breath uppenpenStop your breath (OED v). - [LD]; urchins325Shall, for that vast of night that they may work,326All exercise on thee; thou shalt be pinch'd327As thick as honeycomb, each pinch more stinging328Than bees that made 'em.
Caliban
I must eat my dinner. 329This island's mine, by Sycorax my mother,330Which thou takest from me. When thou camest first,331Thou strokedst me and madest much of me, wouldst give me332Water with berries in't, and teach me how333To name the bigger light, and how the less,334That burn by day and night: and then I loved thee335And show'd thee all the qualities o' the isle,336The fresh springs, brine-pits, barren place and fertile:337Cursed be I that did so! All the charms338Of Sycorax, toads, beetles, bats, light on you!339For I am all the subjects that you have,340Which first was mine own king: and here you stystystyTo confine. - [LD] me341In this hard rock, whiles you do keep from me342The rest o' the island.
5
Prospero
Thou most lying slave, 343Whom stripes may move, not kindness! I have used thee,344Filth as thou art, with human care, and lodged thee345In mine own cell, till thou didst seek to violate346The honourhonourhonourWhen used to describe men, "honour" or "honor" refers to the virtues of nobility of spirit, distinction. However, when applied to women--like Miranda--the word most typically refers to sexual chastity or virginity (OED 7.a) - [TH] of my child.
Caliban
O ho, O ho! would't had been done! 347Thou didst prevent me; I had peopled else348This isle with Calibans.
Prospero
Abhorred slave, 349Which any print of goodness wilt not takeprintprintProspero is here using the word "print" as in "impression," but with connotations deriving from the new invention of printing. - [TH],350Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee,351Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour352One thing or other: when thou didst not, savage,353Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like354A thing most brutish, I endow'd thy purposes355With words that made them known. But thy vile race,356Though thou didst learn, had that in't which good natures357Could not abide to be with; therefore wast thou358Deservedly confined into this rock,359Who hadst deserved more than a prison.
Caliban
360You taught me language; and my profit on't361Is, I know how to curse. The red plague rid you362For learning me your language!
Prospero
Hag-seed, hence! 363Fetch us in fuel; and be quick, thou'rt bestbestbest"You are advised to" (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD],364To answer other business. Shrug'st thou, malice?365If thou neglect'st or dost unwillingly366What I command, I'll rack thee with old cramps,367Fill all thy bones with aches, make thee roar368That beasts shall tremble at thy din.
Caliban
No, pray thee. 369I must obey: his art is of such power,370It would control my dam's god, Setebos,371and make a vassal of him.
Prospero
So, slave; hence!
Exit Caliban Re-enter Ariel, invisible, playing and singing; Ferdinand following Ariel's song.
[Ariel]
372Come unto these yellow sands,373And then take hands:374Courtsied when you have and kiss'd375The wild waves whist,376Foot it featly here and there;377And, sweet sprites, the burthen bear.378Hark, hark!379Bow-wow380The watch-dogs bark!381Bow-wow382Hark, hark! I hear383The strain of strutting chanticleerchanticleerchanticleerA dominating rooster in a courtyard. - [LD]384Cry, Cock-a-diddle-dow.
Ferdinand
385Where should this music be? i' the air or the earth?386It sounds no more: and sure, it waits upon387Some god o' the island. Sitting on a bank,388Weeping again the king my father's wreck,389This music crept by me upon the waters,390Allaying both their fury and my passion391With its sweet air: thence I have follow'd it,392Or it hath drawn me rather. But 'tis gone.393No, it begins again.
Ariel sings
[Ariel]
394Full fathom five thy father lies;395Of his bones are coral made;396Those are pearls that were his eyes:397Nothing of him that doth fade398But doth suffer a sea-change399Into something rich and strange.400Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell401Hark! now I hear them,--Ding-dong, bell.
Ferdinand
402The ditty does remember my drown'd father.403This is no mortal business, nor no sound404That the earth owes. I hear it now above me.
Prospero
405The fringed curtains of thine eye advance406And say what thou seest yond.
Miranda
What is't? a spirit? 407Lord, how it looks about! Believe me, sir,408It carries a brave form. But 'tis a spirit.
Prospero
409No, wench; it eats and sleeps and hath such senses410As we have, such. This gallant which thou seest411Was in the wreck; and, but he's something stain'd412With grief that's beauty's cankercankercankerA disease that consumes vegetation (OED). - [LD] , thou mightst call him413A goodly person: he hath lost his fellows414And strays about to find 'em.
Miranda
I might call him 415A thing divine, for nothing natural416I ever saw so noble.
Prospero
It goes on, I see, 417As my soul prompts it. Spirit, fine spirit! I'll free thee418Within two days for this.
Ferdinand
Most sure, the goddess 419On whom these airs attend! VouchsafeVouchsafeVouchsafeTo grant or bestow. - [LD] my prayer420May know if you remain upon this island;421And that you will some good instruction give422How I may bear me here: my prime request,423Which I do last pronounce, is, O you wonder!424If you be maid or no?
Miranda
No wonder, sir; 425But certainly a maid.
Ferdinand
My language! heavens! 426I am the best of them that speak this speech,427Were I but where 'tis spoken.
Prospero
How? the best? 428What wert thou, if the King of Naples heard thee?
Ferdinand
429A single thing, as I am now, that wonders430To hear thee speak of Naples. He does hear me;431And that he does I weep: myself am Naples,432Who with mine eyes, never since at ebbebbebbAt low tide. - [LD], beheld433The king my father wreck'd.
Miranda
Alack, for mercy!
Ferdinand
434Yes, faith, and all his lords; the Duke of Milan435And his brave son being twain.
Prospero
435The Duke of Milan 436And his more braver daughter could control thee,437If now 'twere fit to do't. At the first sight438They have changed eyes. Delicate Ariel,439I'll set thee free for this. A word, good sir; 440I fear you have done yourself some wrong: a word.
Miranda
441Why speaks my father so ungently? This442Is the third man that e'er I saw, the first443That e'er I sigh'd for: pity move my father444To be inclined my way!
Ferdinand
O, if a virgin, 445And your affection not gone forth, I'll make you446The queen of Naples.
Prospero
SoftSoftSoftTo kindly ask for silence (OED adv.). - [LD], sir! one word more. 447They are both in either's powers; but this swift business448I must uneasy make, lest too light winning449Make the prize light.449 One word more; I charge thee 450That thou attend me: thou dost here usurp451The name thou owest notnamenameProspero accuses Ferdinand of "usurping" his father's position as king by claiming that he will make Miranda "queen of Naples". - [LD]; and hast put thyself452Upon this island as a spy, to win it453From me, the lord on't.
Ferdinand
453 No, as I am a man.
Miranda
454There's nothing ill can dwell in such a temple:455If the ill spirit have so fair a house,456Good things will strive to dwell with't.
Prospero
Follow me. 457Speak not you for him; he's a traitor. Come;458I'll manacle thy neck and feet together:459Sea-water shalt thou drink; thy food shall be460The fresh-brook muscles, wither'd roots and husks461Wherein the acorn cradled. Follow.
Ferdinand
No; 462I will resist such entertainment till463Mine enemy has more power.
Draws, and is charmed from movingDraws DrawsFerdinand draws his sword. Prospero casts a spell to transfix Ferdinand while neither he nor Miranda are aware of this. - [LD]
Miranda
O dear father, 464Make not too rash a trial of him, for465He's gentle and not fearful.
Prospero
What? I say, 466My foot my tutor? Put thy sword up, traitor;467Who makest a show but darest not strike, thy conscience468Is so possess'd with guilt: come from thy ward,469For I can here disarm thee with this stick470And make thy weapon drop.
Miranda
Beseech you, father.
Prospero
471Hence! hang not on my garments.
Miranda
Sir, have pity; 472I'll be his suretysuretysuretyAccording to the OED, a surety in this sense is "a person who is liable for the default or misconduct of another, or for ensuring the performance of some act on another's part, such as payment of a debt or appearance in court" (surety n. 2a). - [LD].
Prospero
Silence! one word more 473Shall make me chide thee, if not hate thee. What!474An advocate for an imposter! hush!475Thou think'st there is no more such shapes as he,476Having seen but him and Caliban: foolish wench!477To the most of men this is a Caliban478And they to him are angels.
Miranda
My affections 479Are then most humble; I have no ambition480To see a goodlier man.
Prospero
Come on; obey: 481Thy nerves are in their infancy again482And have no vigour in them.
Ferdinand
So they are; 483My spirits, as in a dream, are all bound up.484My father's loss, the weakness which I feel,485The wreck of all my friends, nor this man's threats,486To whom I am subdued, are but light to me,487Might I but through my prison once a day488Behold this maid: all corners else o' the earth489Let liberty make use of; space enough490Have I in such a prison.
Prospero
It works. Come on. 491Thou hast done well, fine Ariel! [To Ferdinand] Follow me.492HarkharkharkCalling to attention, to listen, to harken to (OED). - [LD] what thou else shalt do me.
Miranda
Be of comfort; 493My father's of a better nature, sir,494Than he appears by speech: this is unwontedunwontedunwontedUnusual - [LD]495Which now came from him.
Prospero
Thou shalt be free 496As mountain winds: but then exactly do497All points of my command.
Ariel
To the syllable.
Prospero
498Come, follow. Speak not for him.
Exeunt
Act II Scene I. Another part of the island. Enter Alonso, Sebastian, Antonio, Gonzalo, Adrian, Francisco, and others
Gonzalo
1BeseechBeseechBeseechTo plead or beg with great earnest (OED v. 2a). - [LD] you, sir, be merry; you have cause,2So have we all, of joy; for our escape3Is much beyond our loss. Our hint of woe4Is common; every day some sailor's wife,5The masters of some merchant and the merchant6Have just our theme of woe; but for the miracle,7I mean our preservation, few in millions8Can speak like us: then wisely, good sir, weigh9Our sorrow with our comfort.
Alonso
PritheePritheePritheeA synonym for the word "beseech." An archaic form of "I pray thee" (OED). - [LD], peace.
Sebastian
10He receives comfort like cold porridge.
Antonio
11The visitor will not give him o'er so.
Sebastian
12Look he's winding up the watch of his wit;13by and by it will strike.
Gonzalo
13Sir,--
Sebastian
14One: tell.
Gonzalo
15When every grief is entertain'd16that's offer'd, Comes to the entertainer--
Sebastian
16A dollardollardollar A photographic representation of thalersSource: A photographic representation of thalers from Wikimedia CommonsAccording to the OED, a dollar is the English word for the thaler, a German coin of varying value used from the 16th century. The image here, sourced from Wikimedia Commons, shows several thalers. - [LD].
Gonzalo
17DolourDolourDolourSorrow or grief (OED). Gonzalo is playing along with Sebastian's jesting. - [LD] comes to him, indeed: you have spoken truer than you purposed.
Sebastian
18You have taken it wiselier than I meant you should.
Gonzalo
19Therefore, my lord,--
Antonio
20FieFieFieA Middle English expression of disgust, used to refer to children to "excite shame for some unbecoming action" (OED). - [LD], what a spendthriftspendthriftspendthriftSomeone who irresponsibly squanders his income (OED 2). - [LD] is he of his tongue!
Alonso
21I prithee, spare.
Gonzalo
22Well, I have done: but yet,--
Sebastian
23He will be talking.
Antonio
24Which, of he or Adrian, for a good wager,first begins to crow?
Sebastian
25The old cock.
Antonio
26The cockerel.
Sebastian
27Done. The wager?
Antonio
28A laughter.
Sebastian
29A match!
Adrian
30Though this island seem to be desert,--
Sebastian
31Ha, ha, ha! So, you're paid.
Adrian
32Uninhabitable and almost inaccessible,--
Sebastian
33Yet,--
Adrian
34Yet,--
Antonio
35He could not miss't.
Adrian
36It must needs be of subtle, tender and delicate temperance.
Antonio
37Temperance was a delicate wench.
Sebastian
38Ay, and a subtle; as he most learnedly delivered.
Adrian
39The air breathes upon us here most sweetly.
Sebastian
40As if it had lungs and rotten ones.
Antonio
41Or as 'twere perfumed by a fenfenfenSmelly marsh lands. - [LD].
Gonzalo
42Here is everything advantageous to life.
Antonio
43True; save means to live.
Sebastian
44Of that there's none, or little.
Gonzalo
45How lush and lusty the grass looks! how green!
Antonio
46The ground indeed is tawny.
Sebastian
47With an eye of green in't.
Antonio
48He misses not much.
Sebastian
49No; he doth but mistake the truth totally.
Gonzalo
50But the rarity of it is,--which is indeed almost beyond credit,--
Sebastian
51As many vouched rarities are.
Gonzalo
52That our garments, being, as they were, drenchedin the sea, hold notwithstanding their freshness andglosses, being rather new-dyed than stained with saltwater.
Antonio
53If but one of his pockets could speak, wouldit not say he lies?
Sebastian
54Ay, or very falsely pocket up his report
7
Gonzalo
55Methinks our garments are now as fresh as 56when we put them on first in AfricAfricAfricAn old form of Africa (OED). - [LD], at the marriage56of the king's fair daughter Claribel to the King of TunisTunisTunisTunis is the capital city in Tunisia, a country in North Africa. The northern coast of the country, where Tunis is, is on the Mediterranean Sea. - [TH].
Sebastian
56'Twas a sweet marriage, and we prosper well in 56our return.
Adrian
57Tunis was never graced before with such a 58Paragon to their Queen.
Gonzalo
58Not since widow DidoDidoDidoIn Greek mythology, Dido, a widow, falls in love with Aeneas and kills herself after he leaves her to go and build the city of Rome (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]'s time.
Antonio
59Widow! a pox o' that! How came that widow 60in? widow Dido!
Sebastian
60What if he had said 'widower AEneas' too? Good Lord, how you take it!
Adrian
61'Widow Dido' said you? you make me study of that:63she was of CarthageCarthageCarthageCarthage and Tunis weren't the same city, but later on, Carthage was usurped, and Tunis took it's place as the main powerful state of the region (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD], not of Tunis.
Gonzalo
62This Tunis, sir, was Carthage.
Adrian
63Carthage?
Gonzalo
64I assure you, Carthage.
Sebastian
65His word is more than the miraculous harpharpharp Sebastian is referring to the harp that Amphion, son of Zeus is known to have used when constructing the walls of Thebes, a city in Boeotia, Greece (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]; he hath raised the wall and houses too.
Antonio
66What impossible matter will he make easy next?
Sebastian
67I think he will carry this island home in his pocket and give it his son for an apple.
Antonio
68And, sowing the kernels of it in the sea, bring forth more islands.
Gonzalo
69Ay.
Antonio
70Why, in good time.
Gonzalo
71Sir, we were talking that our garments seem now as fresh as when we were at Tunis at the marriage of your daughter, who is now queen.
Antonio
72And the rarest that e'er came there.
Sebastian
73Bate, I beseech you, widow Dido.
Antonio
74O, widow Dido! ay, widow Dido.
Gonzalo
75Is not, sir, my doublet as fresh as the first day I wore it? I mean, in a sort.
Antonio
76That sort was well fished for.
Gonzalo
77When I wore it at your daughter's marriage?
Alonso
78You cram these words into mine ears against79The stomach of my sense. Would I had never80Married my daughter there! for, coming thence,81My son is lost and, in my rate, she too,82Who is so far from Italy removed83I ne'er again shall see her. O thou mine heir84Of Naples and of Milan, what strange fishstrange_fishstrange_fishThis phrase may be a reference to the sea creatures that were often depicted in the oceans of early modern maps. While in earlier periods, when little was known about the shapes of land masses, these sea creatures were signs of danger and the unknown; however, by the late 16th and 17th centuries, sea travel and exploration was on the rise, and this led to more and more complete maps. As the unknown declined, so too did representationos of sea monsters. They transitioned into less threatening and more whimsical fish or whales, and in the modern world, they all but disappeared cartographically. To learn more about the "strange fish" of early modern cartography, see "Mapping the Oceans: How Cartographers Saw the World in the Age of Discovery" at Lapham's Quarterly. - [TH]85Hath made his meal on thee?
Francisco
Sir, he may live:86I saw him beat the surges under him,87And ride upon their backs; he trod the water,88Whose enmity he flung aside, and breasted89The surge most swolnswolnswolnAccording to the OED (IV. 5a), breasted in this sense means "To move forwards directly into, to confront head-on; to climb." Francisco means to say that he witnessed Ferdinand survive contact with a large wave. - [LD] that met him; his bold head90'Bove the contentious waves he kept, and oar'd91Himself with his good arms in lusty stroke92To the shore, that o'er his wave-worn basis bow'd,93As stooping to relieve him: I not doubt94He came alive to land.
Alonso
No, no, he's gone.
Sebastian
95Sir, you may thank yourself for this great loss,96That would not bless our Europe with your daughter,97But rather lose her to an African;98Where she at least is banish'd from your eye,99Who hath cause to wet the grief on't.
Alonso
Prithee, peace.
Sebastian
100You were kneel'd to and importuned otherwise101By all of us, and the fair soul herself102Weigh'd between loathness and obedience, at103Which end o' the beam should bow. We have lost your son,104I fear, for ever: Milan and Naples have105More widows in them of this business' making106Than we bring men to comfort them:107The fault's your own.
Alonso
So is the dear'st o' the loss.
Gonzalo
108My lord Sebastian,109The truth you speak doth lack some gentleness110And time to speak it in: you rub the sore,111When you should bring the plaster.
Sebastian
Very well.
Antonio
112And most chirurgeonlychirurgeonlychirurgeonly"Chirurgeon" is an older spelling of "surgeon" (OED). - [LD].
Gonzalo
113It is foul weather in us all, good sir,114When you are cloudy.
Sebastian
Foul weather?
Antonio
Very foul.
Gonzalo
115Had I plantationplantationplantationThe word "plantation" is significant in the early modern period, as it refers to colonization; Gonzalo imagines his dominion over the island. It also has another sense, meaning a site of planting, which Antonio plays on in the next line. - [TH] of this isle, my lord,--
Antonio
116He'ld sow't with nettle-seed.
Sebastian
Or docks, or mallows.
Gonzalo
117And were the king on't, what would I do?
Sebastian
118'scape being drunk for want of wine.
Gonzalo
119I' the commonwealth I would by contraries120Execute all things; for no kind of traffic121Would I admit; no name of magistrate;122Letters should not be known; riches, poverty,123And use of service, none; contract, succession,124Bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none;125No use of metal, corn, or wine, or oil;126No occupation; all men idle, all;127And women too, but innocent and pure;128No sovereignty;--
Sebastian
Yet he would be king on't.
Antonio
129The latter end of his commonwealth forgets the beginning.
Gonzalo
130 All things in common nature should producecommoncommonGonzalo seems to be suggesting that the trappings of modern civilization lead to corruptiono and want. He imagines a pure, idyllic place without violence, commerce, or vice. - [TH] 131Without sweat or endeavour: treason, felony,132Sword, pike, knife, gun, or need of any engine,133Would I not have; but nature should bring forth,134Of its own kind, all foison, all abundance,135To feed my innocent people.
Sebastian
136No marrying 'mong his subjects?
Antonio
137None, man; all idle: whores and knavesknavesknavesDishonorable men. - [LD].
Gonzalo
138I would with such perfection govern, sir,139To excel the golden age.
Sebastian
God save his majesty!
Antonio
140Long live Gonzalo!
Gonzalo
And,--do you mark me, sir?
Alonso
141Prithee, no more: thou dost talk nothing to me.
Gonzalo
142I do well believe your highness; and did it tominister occasion to these gentlemen, who are of such sensible and nimble lungs that they always use to laugh at nothing.
Antonio
143'Twas you we laughed at.
Gonzalo
144Who in this kind of merry fooling am nothingto you: so you may continue and laugh at nothing still.
Antonio
145What a blow was there given!
Sebastian
146An it had not fallen flat-long.
Gonzalo
147You are gentlemen of brave metal; you wouldlift the moon out of her sphere, if she would continuein it five weeks without changing.
Enter Ariel, invisible, playing solemn music
Sebastian
148We would so, and then go a bat-fowlingfowlingfowlingA way of catching birds at night by flashing them with a bright light, so as to disorient them (OED). - [LD].
Antonio
149Nay, good my lord, be not angry.
Gonzalo
150No, I warrant you; I will not adventure mydiscretion so weakly. Will you laugh me asleep, for Iam very heavyheavyheavyAriel is working magic to put them to sleep. - [LD]?
Antonio
151Go sleep, and hear us.
All sleep except Alonso, Sebastian, and Antonio
Alonso
152What, all so soon asleep! I wish mine eyes Would, with themselves, shut up my thoughts:I find They are inclined to do so.
Sebastian
Please you, sir,153Do not omit the heavy offer of it:154It seldom visits sorrow; when it doth,155It is a comforter.
8
Antonio
We two, my lord,156Will guard your person while you take your rest,157And watch your safety.
Alonso
Thank you. Wondrous heavy.
Alonso sleeps. Exit Ariel
Sebastian
158What a strange drowsiness possesses them!
Antonio
159It is the quality o' the climate.
Sebastian
Why160Doth it not then our eyelids sink? I find not161Myself disposed to sleep.
Antonio
Nor I; my spirits are nimble.162They fell together all, as by consent;163They dropp'd, as by a thunder-stroke. What might,164Worthy Sebastian? O, what might?--No more:--165And yet me thinks I see it in thy face,166What thou shouldst be: the occasion speaks thee, and167My strong imagination sees a crown168Dropping upon thy head.
Sebastian
What, art thou waking?
Antonio
169Do you not hear me speak?
Sebastian
I do; and surely170It is a sleepy language and thou speak'st171Out of thy sleep. What is it thou didst say?172This is a strange repose, to be asleep173With eyes wide open; standing, speaking, moving,174And yet so fast asleep.
Antonio
Noble Sebastian,175Thou let'st thy fortune sleep--die, rather; wink'st176Whiles thou art waking.
Sebastian
Thou dost snore distinctly;177There's meaning in thy snores.
Antonio
178I am more serious than my custom: you179Must be so too, if heed me; which to do180Trebles thee o'er.
Sebastian
Well, I am standing water.
Antonio
181I'll teach you how to flow.
Sebastian
Do so: to ebb182Hereditary slothslothslothSebastian says that he is naturally slothful or slow; he is naturally driven to ebb, and not to flow. - [TH] instructs me.
Antonio
O,183If you but knew how you the purpose cherish184Whiles thus you mock it! how, in stripping it,185You more invest it! Ebbing men, indeed,186Most often do so near the bottom run187By their own fear or sloth.
Sebastian
Prithee, say on:188The setting of thine eye and cheek proclaim189A matter from thee, and a birth indeed190Which throes thee much to yield.
Antonio
Thus, sir:191Although this lord of weak remembrance, this,192Who shall be of as little memory193When he is earth'd, hath here almost persuade,--194For he's a spirit of persuasion, only195Professes to persuade,--the king his son's alive,196'Tis as impossible that he's undrown'd197And he that sleeps here swims.
Sebastian
I have no hope198That he's undrown'd.
Antonio
O, out of that 'no hope'199What great hope have you! no hope that way is200Another way so high a hope that even201Ambition cannot pierce a wink beyond,202But doubt discovery there. Will you grant with me203That Ferdinand is drown'd?
Sebastian
He's gone.
Antonio
Then, tell me,204Who's the next heir of Naples?
Sebastian
Claribel.
Antonio
205She that is queen of Tunis; she that dwells206Ten leagues beyond man's life; she that from Naples207Can have no note, unless the sun were post--208The man i' the moon's too slow--till new-born chins209Be rough and razorable; she that--from whom?210We all were sea-swallow'd, though some cast again,211And by that destiny to perform an act212Whereof what's past is prologue, what to come213In yours and my discharge.
Sebastian
What stuff is this! how say you?214'Tis true, my brother's daughter's queen of Tunis;215So is she heir of Naples; 'twixt which regions216There is some space.
Antonio
A space whose every cubit217Seems to cry out, 'How shall that Claribel218Measure us back to Naples? Keep in Tunis,219And let Sebastian wake.' Say, this were death220That now hath seized them; why, they were no worse221Than now they are. There be that can rule Naples222As well as he that sleeps; lords that can prateprateprateTo chatter irrelevantly. - [LD]223As amply and unnecessarily224As this Gonzalo; I myself could make225A choughchoughchoughA chatterer. - [LD] of as deep chat. O, that you bore226The mind that I do! what a sleep were this227For your advancement! Do you understand me?
Sebastian
228Methinks I do.
Antonio
And how does your content229Tender your own good fortune?
Sebastian
I remember230You did supplant your brother Prospero.
Antonio
True:231And look how well my garments sit upon me;232Much featerfeaterfeaterA better fit. - [LD] than before: my brother's servants233Were then my fellows; now they are my men.
Sebastian
But, for your conscience?
Antonio
234Ay, sir; where lies that? if 'twere a kibekibekibeAccording to the OED 1a., a kibe is a Middle English word meaning "A chapped or ulcerated chilblain, esp. one on the heel." A chilblain is a red, rough, patchy area of skin. - [LD],235'Twould put me to my slipper: but I feel not236This deity in my bosom: twenty consciences,237That stand 'twixt me and Milan, candied be they238And melt ere they molest! Here lies your brother,239No better than the earth he lies upon,240If he were that which now he's like, that's dead;241Whom I, with this obedient steel, three inches of it,242Can lay to bed for ever; whiles you, doing thus,243To the perpetual wink for aye might put244This ancient morsel, this Sir Prudence, who245Should not upbraid our course. For all the rest,246They'll take suggestion as a cat laps milk;247They'll tell the clock to any business that248We say befits the hour.
Sebastian
Thy case, dear friend,249Shall be my precedent; as thou got'st Milan,250I'll come by Naples. Draw thy sword: one stroke251Shall free thee from the tribute which thou payest;252And I the king shall love thee.
Antonio
Draw together;253And when I rear my hand, do you the like,254To fall it on Gonzalo.
Sebastian
O, but one word.
They talk apart Re-enter Ariel, invisible
Ariel
255My master through his art foresees the danger256That you, his friend, are in; and sends me forth--257For else his project dies--to keep them living.258While you here do snoring lie,259Open-eyed conspiracy260His time doth take.261If of life you keep a care,262Shake off slumber, and beware:263Awake, awake!
Antonio
264Then let us both be sudden.
Gonzalo
Now, good angels Preserve the king.
They wake
Alonso
265Why, how now? ho, awake! Why are you drawn?266Wherefore this ghastly looking?
Gonzalo
What's the matter?
Sebastian
267Whiles we stood here securing your repose,268Even now, we heard a hollow burst of bellowing269Like bulls, or rather lions: did't not wake you?270It struck mine ear most terribly.
Alonso
I heard nothing.
Antonio
271O, 'twas a din to fright a monster's ear,272To make an earthquake! sure, it was the roar273Of a whole herd of lions.
Alonso
Heard you this, Gonzalo?
Gonzalo
274Upon mine honour, sir, I heard a humming,275(And that a strange one too) which did awake me:276I shaked you, sir, and cried: as mine eyes open'd,277I saw their weapons drawn: there was a noise,278That's verily. 'Tis best we stand upon our guard,279Or that we quit this place; let's draw our weapons.
Alonso
280Lead off this ground; and let's make further search281For my poor son.
Gonzalo
282Heavens keep him from these beasts!283For he is, sure, i' the island.
Alonso
Lead away.
Ariel
284Prospero my lord shall know what I have done:285So, king, go safely on to seek thy son.
Exeunt
Scene II. Another part of the island. Enter Caliban with a burden of wood. A noise of thunder heard
Caliban
1All the infections that the sun sucks up2From bogs, fens, flats, on Prosper fall and make him3By inch-mealinchinchAs cited from the OED, "Little by little, by every inch." - [LD] a disease! His spirits hear me4And yet I needs must curse. But they'll nor pinch,5Fright me with urchin-showsurchinurchinApparitions of goblins or elves which sometimes resembled the form of a hedgehog (OED n.1c). - [LD], pitch me i' the mire,6Nor lead me, like a firebrand, in the dark7Out of my way, unless he bid 'em; but8For every trifle are they set upon me;9Sometime like apes that mow and chatter at me10And after bite me, then like hedgehogs which11Lie tumbling in my barefoot way and mount12Their pricks at my footfall; sometime am I13All wound with addersaddersaddersAny of the various types of venomous snakes or serpents (OED). - [LD] who with cloven tongues14Do hiss me into madness.14Lo, now, lo!15Here comes a spirit of his, and to torment me16For bringing wood in slowly. I'll fall flat;17Perchance he will not mind me.
Trinculo
18Here's neither bush nor shrub, to bear off any19weather at all, and another storm brewing; I hear it 20sing i' the wind: yond same black cloud, yond 21huge one, looks like a foul bombard that would shed 22his liquor. If it should thunder as it did before, I know 23not where to hide my head: yond same cloud cannot24choose but fall by pailfuls. What have we here? 25a man or a fish? dead or alive? A fish: he smells 26like a fish; a very ancient and fish-like smell; a kind of 27not of the newest Poor-JohnPoorJohnPoorJohnPoor-John is a "fish salted and dried for food" (OED). - [LD]. A strange fish! Were I 28in England now, as once I was, and had but this fish painted,29not a holiday fool there but would give a piece30of silver: there would this monster makemakemakeAccording to the The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, the archaic phrase "to make a man" meant to make a man's fortune. - [LD] a man; 31any strange beast there makes a man: when they will 32not give a doitdoitdoit"The half of an English farthing, as the type of a very small sum" (OED 1.a). - [LD] to relieve a lame beggar, they will lazy 33out ten to see a dead Indian. Legged like a man and34his fins like arms! Warm o' my troth! I do now let 35loose my opinion; hold it no longer: this is no fish,36but an islander, that hath lately suffered by a37thunderbolt.37Alas, the storm is come again! my38 best way is to creep under his gaberdinegaberdinegaberdineA loose upper garment for men, which worked as a coat or gown woven from coarse fabric (OED A.1.a) - [LD]; there is no 39other shelter hereabouts: misery acquaints a man with40strange bed-fellows. I will here shroud till the dregs of 41the storm be past.
Enter Stephano, singing: [a bottle in his hand]
Stephano
42I shall no more to sea, to sea,43Here shall I die ashore--44This is a very scurvy tune to sing at a man's funeral: 45well, here's my comfort. Drinks 46The master, the swabber, the boatswain and I,47The gunner and his mate48Loved Mall, Meg and Marian and Margery,49But none of us cared for Kate;50For she had a tongue with a tangtangtangAccording to the OED, a pungent or stinging effect (II.5.c); could also mean the strong ringing sound produced when a large bell or an object with sonorous quality is struck (n.2). - [LD],51Would cry to a sailor, Go hang!52She loved not the savour of tar nor of pitch,53Yet a tailor might scratch her where'er she did itch:54Then to sea, boys, and let her go hang!55This is a scurvy tune too: but here's my comfort.
Drinks
Caliban
56Do not torment me: Oh!
Stephano
57What's the matter? Have we devils here? Do 58you put tricks upon's with savages and men of IndIndIndAs cited from the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, Stephano refers to Caliban as a "savage" and compares him to the "men of Ind," whether they are referring to the West Indies (in the Caribbean Sea) or East India is contested. The East India Company was chartered by Elizabeth I in 1600. To read more about Shakespeare and India, see this somewhat dated essay by John Draper. - [LD],59ha? I have not scaped drowning to be afeard now of 60your four legs; for it hath been said, As proper a 61man as ever went on four legsfourlegsfourlegsAccording to notes in most annotated versions of the play, Stephano here uses a proverbial expression: "As proper a man as ever went on two legs." However, he substitutes "four legs" for "two," given the monstrous creature he sees. - [TH] cannot make him give 62ground; and it shall be said so again while Stephano63breathes at's nostrils.
Caliban
64The spirit torments me; Oh!
Stephano
65This is some monster of the isle with four legs, 66who hath got, as I take it, an agueagueagueA state of distress, fear, causing the body to shake or shiver (OED 2). - [LD]. Where the devil67should he learn our language? I will give him some68relief, if it be but for that. If I can recover him, and69keep him tame and get to Naples with him, he's a70present for any emperor that ever trod on neat's-leather.
Caliban
71Do not torment me, prithee; I'll bring my72wood home faster.
Stephano
73He's in his fit now and does not talk after the74wisest. He shall taste of my bottle: if he have never75drunk wine afore will go near to remove his fit. 76If I can recover him and keep him tame, I will not take 77too much for him; he shall pay for him that hath him, 78and that soundly.
Caliban
79Thou dost me yet but little hurt; thou wilt 80anon, I know it by thy trembling: now Prosper works 81upon thee.
Stephano
82Come on your ways; open your mouth; here83 is that which will give language to you, cat: open your84mouth; this will shake your shaking, I can tell you,85and that soundly: you cannot tell who's your friend:86open your chaps again.
[Caliban drinks.]
Trinculo
87I should know that voice: it should be--but88he is drowned; and these are devils: O defend me!
Stephano
89Four legs and two voices: a most delicate90monster! His forward voice now is to speak well 91of his friend; his backward voice is to utter foul 92speeches and to detract. If all the wine in my bottle 93will recover him, I will help his ague. Come. 94Amen! I will pour some in thy other 95mouth.
Trinculo
96Stephano!
Stephano
97Doth thy other mouth call me? Mercy, mercy! 98This is a devil, and no monster: I will leave him; I have 99no long spoon.
Trinculo
100Stephano! If thou beest Stephano, touch me and101speak to me: for I am Trinculo--be not afeard--thy102good friend Trinculo.
Stephano
103If thou beest Trinculo, come forth: I'll pull 104thee by the lesser legs: if any be Trinculo's legs, these105are they. Thou art very Trinculo indeed! How106camest thou to be the siege of this moon-calf? can he 107vent Trinculos?
Trinculo
108I took him to be killed with a thunder-stroke. 109But art thou not drowned, Stephano? I hope now thou 110art not drowned. Is the storm overblown? I hid 111me under the dead moon-calf's gaberdine for fear of the112storm. And art thou living, Stephano? O Stephano, 113two NeapolitansNeapolitansNeapolitansA citizen of the former kingdom of Naples in Southern Italy (OED). - [LD] 'scaped!
Stephano
114Prithee, do not turn me about; my stomach is115not constant.
Caliban
116These be fine things, an if they be not sprites117That's a brave god and bears celestial liquor.118I will kneel to him.
Stephano
119How didst thou 'scape? How camest thou120hither? swear by this bottle how thou camest 121hither. I escaped upon a butt of sack which the sailors122heaved o'erboard, by this bottle; which I made of the 123bark of a tree with mine own hands since I was cast124ashore.
Caliban
125I'll swear upon that bottle to be thy true subject;126for the liquor is not earthly.
Stephano
127Here; swear then how thou escapedst.
Trinculo
128Swum ashore. man, like a duck: I can swim 129like a duck, I'll be sworn.
Stephano
130Here, kiss the book. [Passing the bottle.]131Though thou canst swim like a duck, thou art made like 132a goose.
Trinculo
133O Stephano. hast any more of this?
Stephano
134The whole butt, man: my cellar is in a rock by the135sea-side where my wine is hid. How now, moon-calf!136how does thine ague?
Caliban
137Hast thou not dropp'd from heaven?
Stephano
138Out o' the moon, I do assure thee: I was the man i'139the moon when time was.
Caliban
140I have seen thee in her and I do adore thee:141My mistress show'd me thee and thy dog and thy bush.
Stephano
142Come, swear to that; kiss the book: I will furnish143it anon with new contents swear.
[Caliban drinks.]
Trinculo
144By this good light, this is a very shallow145monster! I afeard of him! A very weak monster!146The manmanmanTrinculo is referring to the folktale about a man who was banished to the moon because he was caught working on the sabbath day (Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). - [LD]i' the moon! A most poor credulous 17monster! Well drawn, monster, in good sooth!
Caliban
148I'll show thee every fertile inch o' th' island;149And I will kiss thy foot: I prithee, be my god.
Trinculo
150By this light, a most perfidious and drunken151monster! when 's god's asleep, he'll rob his bottle.
Caliban
152I'll kiss thy foot; I'll swear myself thy subject.
Stephano
153Come on then; down, and swear.
Trinculo
154I shall laugh myself to death at this puppy-headed155monster. A most scurvy monster! I could find in my16heart to beat him,--
Stephano
157Come, kiss.
Trinculo
158But that the poor monster's in drink: 159an abominable monster!
Caliban
160I'll show thee the best springs; I'll pluck thee berries;161I'll fish for thee and get thee wood enough.162A plague upon the tyrant that I serve!163I'll bear him no more sticks, but follow thee,164Thou wondrous man.
Trinculo
165A most ridiculous monster, to make a wonder of a166Poor drunkard!
Caliban
167I prithee, let me bring thee where crabs grow;168And I with my long nails will dig thee pignutspignutspignutsFrom the OED, 'The sweetish edible tuber of Conopodium majus, a fine-leaved plant of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) of acid pastures and woods in western Europe; the plant itself. Also called earthnut.' - [LD];169Show thee a jay's nest and instruct thee how170To snare the nimble marmosetmarmosetmarmosetA small monkey to be captured as a pet or for eating - [LD]; I'll bring thee171To clustering filbertsfilbertsfilberts"The fruit or nut of the cultivated hazel" (OED) - [LD] and sometimes I'll get thee172Young scamelsscamelsscamelsAs noted in the Arden Shakespeare, the meaning of this word is heavily contested, possibly because of printing errors. Scholars assume that it could mean "seamews," a bird that feeds on fish, or a custacean, bird or a fish that frequent rocks. The OED defines the meaning as uncertain. - [LD] from the rock. Wilt thou go with me?
Stephano
173I prithee now, lead the way without any more174talking. Trinculo, the king and all our company175else being drowned, we will inherit here: here;176bear my bottle: fellow Trinculo, we'll fill him by177and by again.
Caliban
178 (Sings drunkenly.) Farewell master; farewell, farewell!
Trinculo
179A howling monster: a drunken monster!
Caliban
180No more dams I'll make for fish181Nor fetch in firing182At requiring;183Nor scrape trencher, nor wash dish184'Ban, 'Ban, CaCaliban185Has a new master: get a new man.186Freedom, hey-day! hey-day, freedom! freedom,187hey-day, freedom!
Stephano
188O brave monster! Lead the way.
Exeunt
Act III Scene I. Before Prospero's Cell. Enter Ferdinand, bearing a log
Ferdinand
1There be some sports are painful, and their labour2Delight in them sets off: some kinds of baseness3Are nobly undergone and most poor matters4Point to rich ends. This my mean task5Would be as heavy to me as odious, but6The mistress which I serve quickens what's dead7And makes my labours pleasures: O, she is8Ten times more gentle than her father's crabbedcrabbedcrabbed A verb that originated in the 1400's, which means to be Irritated or enraged. (OED v. 1a) - [LD],9And he's composed of harshness. I must remove10Some thousands of these logs and pile them up,11Upon a sore injunction: my sweet mistress12Weeps when she sees me work, and says, such baseness13Had never like executor. I forget:14But these sweet thoughts do even refresh my labours,15Most busy lest, when I do it.
Enter Miranda; and Prospero at a distance, unseen
Miranda
15Alas, now, pray you,16Work not so hard: I would the lightning had17Burnt up those logs that you are enjoin'd to pile!18Pray, set it down and rest you: when this burns,19'Twill weep for having wearied you. My father20Is hard at study; pray now, rest yourself;21He's safe for these three hours.
Ferdinand
21O most dear mistress,22The sun will set before I shall discharge23What I must strive to do.
Miranda
23If you'll sit down,24I'll bear your logs the while: pray, give me that;25I'll carry it to the pile.
Ferdinand
25No, precious creature;26I had rather crack my sinewssinewssinews Fibrous chords that connect the muscles to the bone (OED). - [LD], break my back,27Than you should such dishonour undergo,28While I sit lazy by.
Miranda
28It would become me29As well as it does you: and I should do it30With much more ease; for my good will is to it,31And yours it is against.
Prospero
31Poor wormwormworm Prospero is using the noun worm as a term of endearment when speaking about his daughter, also working as a metaphor her delicate and simple nature. - [LD], thou art infected!32This visitation shows it.
Miranda
32You look wearily.
Ferdinand
33No, noble mistress;'tis fresh morning with me34When you are by at night. I do beseech you--35Chiefly that I might set it in my prayers--36What is your name?
Miranda
36Miranda.--O my father,37I have broke your hesthesthest An archaic word that means command or behest (OED). - [LD] to say so!
Ferdinand
37Admired MirandaAdmiredAdmired The name Miranda means "to be wondered at" or to be admired. Ferdinand is seen to be using word-play. - [LD]!38Indeed the top of admiration! worth39What's dearest to the world! Full many a lady40I have eyed with best regard and many a time41The harmony of their tongues hath into bondage42Brought my too diligent ear: for several virtues43Have I liked several women; never any44With so fun soul, but some defect in her45Did quarrel with the noblest grace she owed46And put it to the foilfoilfoil Here, foil either refers to a fencing sword or to a verb that means to thwart. - [LD]: but you, O you,47So perfect and so peerless, are created48Of every creature's best!
Miranda
48I do not know49One of my sex; no woman's face remember,50Save, from my glass, mine own; nor have I seen51More that I may call men than you, good friend,52And my dear father: how features are abroad,53I am skilless of; but, by my modesty,54The jewel in my dowerjeweljewel Miranda presents her modesty, which also may refer to her virginity, as her greatly priced jewel that she is able to offer Ferdinand as dowry for marriage which represents what society greatly valued in a young woman when it came to marriage. - [LD], I would not wish55Any companion in the world but you,56Nor can imagination form a shape,57Besides yourself, to like of. But I prattle58Something too wildly and my father's precepts59I therein do forget.
Ferdinand
59I am in my condition60A prince, Miranda; I do think, a king;61I would, not so!--and would no more endure62This wooden slavery than to suffer63flesh-flyflyflyFlies that generally lay their eggs in carcasses. - [LD] blow my mouth. Hear my soul speak:64The very instant that I saw you, did65My heart fly to your service; there resides,66To make me slave to it; and for your sake67Am I this patient log--man.
Miranda
67Do you love me?
Ferdinand
68O heaven, O earth, bear witness to this sound69And crown what I profess with kind event70If I speak true! if hollowly, invert71What best is boded me to mischief! I72Beyond all limit of what else i' the world73Do love, prize, honour you.
Miranda
73I am a fool74To weep at what I am glad of.
Prospero
74Fair encounter75Of two most rare affections! Heavens rain grace76On that which breeds between 'em!
Ferdinand
76Wherefore weep you?
Miranda
77At mine unworthiness that dare not offer78What I desire to give, and much less take79What I shall die to want. But this is trifling;80And all the more it seeks to hide itself,81The bigger bulk it shows. Hence, bashful cunning!82And prompt me, plain and holy innocence!83I am your wife, if you will marry me;84If not, I'll die your maid: to be your fellow85You may deny me; but I'll be your servant,86Whether you will or no.
Ferdinand
86My mistress, dearest;87And I thus humble ever.
Miranda
87My husband, then?
Ferdinand
88Ay, with a heart as willing89As bondage e'er of freedom: here's my hand.
Miranda
90And mine, with my heart in't; and now farewell91Till half an hour hencehourhour Another indication of the procession of time in this play. - [LD].
Ferdinand
91A thousand thousand!
Exeunt [Ferdinand and Miranda severallyseverally] severallyThey exit at different points from the stage. - [LD]
Prospero
92So glad of this as they I cannot be,93Who are surprised withal; but my rejoicing94At nothing can be more. I'll to my book,95For yet ere supper-time must I perform96Much business appertaining.
Exit
Scene II. Another part of the island. Enter Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo
Stephano
1Tell not me; when the butt is out, we will drink2water; not a drop before: therefore bear up, and3board 'em. Servant-monster, drink to me.
Trinculo
4Servant-monster! the folly of this island! They5say there's but five upon this isle: we are three6of them; if th' other two be brained like us, the7state totterstotterstottersAn unsteady or shaky movement (OED). - [LD].
Stephano
8Drink, servant-monster, when I bid thee: thy eyes9are almost set in thy head.
Trinculo
10Where should they be set else? he were a brave11monster indeed, if they were set in his tail.
Stephano
12My man-monster hath drown'd his tongue in sack:13for my part, the sea cannot drown me; I swam, ere I14could recover the shore, five and thirty leagues off15and on. By this light, thou shalt be my lieutenant,16monster, or my standardstandardstandardAccording to the OED, A standard is an obsolete term, referring to "a person who carries a standard, often as a permanent duty'. - [LD].
Trinculo
17Your lieutenant, if you list; he's no standard.
Stephano
18We'll not run, Monsieur Monster.
Trinculo
19Nor go neither; but you'll lie like dogs and yet say20nothing neither.
Stephano
21Moon-calf, speak once in thy life, if thou beest a22good moon-calf.
Caliban
23How does thy honour? Let me lick thy shoe.24I'll not serve him; he's not valiant.
Trinculo
25Thou liest, most ignorant monster: I am in case to26justle a constableconstableconstableTrinculo claims that he is ready to fight a constable, who is the chief officer of the court (OED). - [LD]. Why, thou debosheddebosheddeboshedA variant of the term debauched--over-indulging in sensual pleasures, including drinking (OED). - [LD] fish thou,27was there ever man a coward that hath drunk so much28sack as I to-day? Wilt thou tell a monstrous lie,29being but half a fish and half a monster?
Caliban
30Lo, how he mocks me! wilt thou let him, my lord?
12
Trinculo
31'Lord' quoth he! That a monster should be such a natural!
Caliban
32Lo, lo, again! bite him to death, I prithee.
Stephano
33Trinculo, keep a good tongue in your head: if you34prove a mutineer,--the next tree! The poor monster's35my subject and he shall not suffer indignity.
Caliban
36I thank my noble lord. Wilt thou be pleased to37hearken once again to the suit I made to thee?
Stephano
38Marry, will I kneel and repeat it; I will stand,39and so shall Trinculo.
Enter Ariel, invisibleinvisible invisible_Ariel is accompanied by his fellow spirits as he sings his song. - [LD]
Caliban
40As I told thee before, I am subject to a tyrant, a41sorcerer, that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island.
Ariel
42Thou liest.
Caliban
43Thou liest, thou jesting monkey, thou: I would my44valiant master would destroy thee! I do not lie.
Stephano
45Trinculo, if you trouble him any more in's tale, by46this hand, I will supplant some of your teeth.
Trinculo
47Why, I said nothing.
Stephano
48Mum, then, and no more. Proceed.
Caliban
49I say, by sorcery he got this isle;50From me he got it. if thy greatness will51Revenge it on him,--for I know thou darest,52But this thing dare not,--
Stephano
53That's most certain.
Caliban
54Thou shalt be lord of it and I'll serve thee.
Stephano
55How now shall this be compassed?56Canst thou bring me to the party?
Caliban
57Yea, yea, my lord: I'll yield him thee asleep,58Where thou mayst knock a nail into his bead.
Ariel
59Thou liest; thou canst not.
Caliban
60What a pied ninnyninnyninny"Pied" refers to the many-colored or mixed-up costume a jester would wear. A "ninny" is a simpleton. - [TH]'s this! Thou scurvy patch!61I do beseech thy greatness, give him blows62And take his bottle from him: when that's gone63He shall drink nought but brinebrine_brineSalty sea water. - [LD]; for I'll not show him64Where the quick freshes are.
Stephano
65Trinculo, run into no further danger:66interrupt the monster one word further, and,67by this hand, I'll turn my mercy out o' doors68and make a stock-fish of thee.
Trinculo
69Why, what did I? I did nothing. I'll go farther70off.
Stephano
71Didst thou not say he lied?
Ariel
72Thou liest.
Stephano
73Do I so? take thou that.74As you like this, give me the lie another time.
Trinculo
75I did not give the lie. Out o' your76wits and bearing too? A poxpoxpoxAn exclamation of frustration or anger; Trinculo wishes the pox--syphillis--upon Stephano's drinking. (OED). - [LD] o' your bottle!77this can sack and drinking do. A murrainmurrainmurraina deadly infectious disease (OED). - [LD] on78your monster, and the devil take your fingers!
Caliban
79Ha, ha, ha!
Stephano
80Now, forward with your tale. Prithee, stand farther81off.
Caliban
82Beat him enough: after a little time83I'll beat him too.
Stephano
84Stand farther. Come, proceed.
Caliban
85Why, as I told thee, 'tis a custom with him,86I' th' afternoon to sleep: there thou mayst brain him,87Having first seized his books, or with a log88Batter his skull, or paunchpaunchpaunchTo stab or wound in the stomach (OED). - [LD] him with a stake,89Or cut his wezandwezandwezandThe throat or windpipe. - [LD] with thy knife. Remember90First to possess his books; for without them91He's but a sot, as I am, nor hath not92One spirit to command: they all do hate him93As rootedly as I. Burn but his books.94He has brave utensils,--for so he calls them--95Which when he has a house, he'll deck withal96And that most deeply to consider is97The beauty of his daughter; he himself98Calls her a nonpareilnonpareilnonpareilincomparable - [LD]: I never saw a woman,99But only Sycorax my dam and she;100But she as far surpasseth Sycorax101As great'st does least.
Stephano
102Is it so brave a lass?
Caliban
103Ay, lord; she will become thy bed, I warrant.104And bring thee forth brave brood.
Stephano
105Monster, I will kill this man: his daughter and I106will be king and queen--save our graces!--and107Trinculo and thyself shall be viceroys. Dost thou108like the plot, Trinculo?
Trinculo
109Excellent.
Stephano
110Give me thy hand: I am sorry I beat thee; but,111while thou livest, keep a good tongue in thy head.
Caliban
112Within this half hour will he be asleep:113Wilt thou destroy him then?
Stephano
114Ay, on mine honour.
Ariel
115This will I tell my master.
Caliban
116Thou makest me merry; I am full of pleasure:117Let us be jocund: will you troll the catch118You taught me but while-ere?
Stephano
119At thy request, monster, I will do reason, any120reason. Come on, Trinculo, let us sing.121Flout 'em and scout 'em122And scout 'em and flout 'em123Thought is free.
Caliban
124That's not the tune.
Ariel plays the tune on a tabour and pipe
Stephano
125What is this same?
Trinculo
126This is the tune of our catch, played by the picture127of Nobody.
Stephano
128If thou beest a man, show thyself in thy likeness:129if thou beest a devil, take't as thou list.
Trinculo
130O, forgive me my sins!
Stephano
131He that dies pays all debts: I defy thee. Mercy upon us!
Caliban
132Art thou afeard?
Stephano
133No, monster, not I.
Caliban
134Be not afeardafeardafeardThe following speech by Caliban is one of the most famous and studied passages of the play. Caliban who had lived his entire life on the island feels a deeper connection to its beauty and richness. - [LD]; the isle is full of noises,135Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight and hurt not.136Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments137Will hum about mine ears, and sometime voices138That, if I then had waked after long sleep,139Will make me sleep again: and then, in dreaming,140The clouds methought would open and show riches141Ready to drop upon me that, when I waked,142I cried to dream again.
Stephano
143This will prove a brave kingdom to me, where I shall144have my music for nothing.
Caliban
145When Prospero is destroyed.
Stephano
146That shall be by and by: I remember the story.
Trinculo
147The sound is going away; let's follow it, and148after do our work.
Stephano
149Lead, monster; we'll follow. I would I could see150this tabourer; he lays it on.
Trinculo
151Wilt come? I'll follow, Stephano.
13 Exeunt
Scene III. Another part of the island. Enter Alonso, Sebastian, Antonio, Gonzalo, Adrian, Francisco, and others
Gonzalo
1By'r lakinlakinlakinAn obsolete form of the phrase 'by our Lady', denoting the Virgin Mary (OED n.2). - [LD], I can go no further, sir;2My old bones ache: here's a maze trod indeed3Through forth-rights and meanders! By your patience,4I needs must rest me.
Alonso
5Old lord, I cannot blame thee,6Who am myself attach'd with weariness,7To the dulling of my spirits: sit down, and rest.8Even here I will put off my hope and keep it9No longer for my flatterer: he is drown'd10Whom thus we stray to find, and the sea mocks11Our frustrate search on land. Well, let him go.
Antonio
12 Aside to Sebastian I am right glad that he's so out of hope.14Do not, for one repulse, forego the purpose15That you resolved to effect.
Sebastian
16 Aside to Antonio The next advantage 17Will we take throughly.
Antonio
18 Aside to Sebastian Let it be to-night; 19For, now they are oppress'd with travel, they20Will not, nor cannot, use such vigilance21As when they are fresh.
Sebastian
22 Aside to Antonio I say, to-night: no more.
Solemn and strange music
Alonso
23What harmony is this? My good friends, hark!
Gonzalo
24Marvellous sweet music!
Enter Prospero aboveabove aboveIn this scene, the upper stage allows Prospero's character secretly observe the plot transpiring below on the main stage. - [LD], invisible. Enter several strange Shapes, bringing in a banquet; they dance about it with gentle actions of salutation; and, inviting the King, &c. to eat, they depart
Alonso
25Give us kind keepers, heavens! What were these?
Sebastian
26A living drollerydrollerydrolleryA comical entertainment in the form of a puppet-show (OED 2.a) - [LD]. Now I will believe27That there are unicorns, that in Arabia28There is one tree, the phoenix' throne, one phoenix29At this hour reigning there.
Antonio
30I'll believe both;31And what does else want creditcreditcreditlacking in credibility - [LD], come to me,32And I'll be sworn 'tis true: travellers ne'er did lie,33Though fools at home condemn 'em.
Gonzalo
34If in Naples35I should report this now, would they believe me?36If I should say, I saw such islanders--37For, certescertescertesAn archaic form of the term meaning certainly, assuredly (OED). - [LD], these are people of the island--38Who, though they are of monstrous shape, yet, note,39Their manners are more gentle-kind than of40Our human generation you shall find41Many, nay, almost any.
Prospero
42 Aside Honest lord, 43Thou hast said well; for some of you there present44Are worse than devils.
Alonso
45I cannot too much muse46Such shapes, such gesture and such sound, expressing,47Although they want the use of tongue, a kind48Of excellent dumb discourse.
Prospero
49 Aside Praise in departing.
Francisco
50They vanish'd strangely.
Sebastian
51No matter, since52They have left their viands behind; for we have stomachs.53Will't please you taste of what is here?
Alonso
54Not I.
Gonzalo
55Faith, sir, you need not fear. When we were boys,56Who would believe that there were mountaineers57Dew-lapp'd like bullsbullsbullsGonzalo describes the physical attributes of the indigenous people living on the island, commenting that their necks have a similar folding of excessive loose skin that hangs from the throats of cattle (OED). - [LD], whose throats had hanging at 'em58Wallets of flesh? or that there were such men59Whose heads stood in their breasts? which now we find60Each putter-out of five for one will bring us61Good warrant of.
Alonso
62I will stand to and feed,63Although my last: no matter, since I feel64The best is past. Brother, my lord the duke,65Stand to and do as we.
Thunder and lightning. Enter Ariel, like a harpyharpy harpyAn illustration of a harpy from 1642Source: Illustration of a harpy from Monstrorum Historia (1642)Ariel appears in the form of a harpy, a greedy and fearsome mythological creature that metes out divine justice and vengeance. Harpies have the head and body of a woman and the wings and claws of a bird. Ariel is imagined as wreaking the 'divine' vengeance of Prospero. This annotation and image are sourced from World History Encyclopedia. The image here, also from the World History Encyclopedia, is an illustration of the harpy from Ulisse Aldrovandi's Monstrorum Historia, Bologna, 1642. - [LD]; claps his wings upon the table; and, with a quaint device, the banquet vanishes
Ariel
66You are three men of sin, whom Destiny,67That hath to instrument this lower world68And what is in't, the never-surfeitedsurfeitedsurfeitedThe insatiable nature of the sea. - [LD] sea69Hath caused to belch up you; and on this island70Where man doth not inhabit; you 'mongst men71Being most unfit to live. I have made you mad;72And even with such-like valour men hang and drown73Their proper selves.74You fools! I and my fellows75Are ministers of Fate: the elements,76Of whom your swords are temper'd, may as well77Wound the loud winds, or with bemock'd-at stabs78Kill the still-closing waters, as diminish79One dowledowledowleThe OED define dowl as "One of the filaments of fibres of a feather' - [LD] that's in my plume: my fellow-ministers80Are like invulnerable. If you could hurt,81Your swords are now too massy for your strengths82And will not be uplifted. But remember--83For that's my business to you--that you three84From Milan did supplant good Prospero;85Exposed unto the sea, which hath requitrequitrequitTo repay, compensation (OED) - [LD] it,86Him and his innocent child: for which foul deed87The powers, delaying, not forgetting, have88Incensed the seas and shores, yea, all the creatures,89Against your peace. Thee of thy son, Alonso,90They have bereft; and do pronounce by me:91Lingering perdition, worse than any death92Can be at once, shall step by step attend93You and your ways; whose wraths to guard you from--94Which here, in this most desolate isle, else falls95Upon your heads--is nothing but heart-sorrow96And a clear life ensuing.
He vanishes in thunder; then, to soft music enter the Shapes again, and dance, with mocksmocks mocksgrimacing facial expressions - [LD], and carrying out the table
Prospero
97Bravely the figure of this harpy hast thou98Perform'd, my Ariel; a grace it had, devouring:99Of my instruction hast thou nothing bated100In what thou hadst to say: so, with good life101And observation strange, my meaner ministers102Their several kinds have done. My high charms work103And these mine enemies are all knitknitknitEntangled by their temporary madness - [LD] up104In their distractions; they now are in my power;105And in these fits I leave them, while I visit106Young Ferdinand, whom they suppose is drown'd,107And his and mine loved darling.
Exit above
Gonzalo
108I' the name of something holy, sir, why stand you109In this strange stare?
Alonso
110O, it is monstrous, monstrous:111Methought the billows spoke and told me of it;112The winds did sing it to me, and the thunder,113That deep and dreadful organ-pipe, pronounced114The name of Prosper: it did bass my trespass.115Therefore my son i' the ooze is bedded, and116I'll seek him deeper than e'er plummetplummetplummetAs cited from the OED, 'A piece of lead or other heavy material attached to a line, used for measuring the depth of water; a sounding lead' or a plumb. - [LD] sounded117And with him there lie mudded.
Exit
Sebastian
118But one fiend at a time,119I'll fight their legions o'er.
14
Antonio
120I'll be thy second.
Exeunt Sebastian, and Antonio
Gonzalo
121All three of them are desperate: their great guilt,122Like poison given to work a great time after,123Now 'gins to bite the spirits. I do beseech you124That are of suppler joints, follow them swiftly125And hinder them from what this ecstasy126May now provoke them to.
Adrian
127Follow, I pray you.
Exeunt
Act IV Scene I. Before Prospero's cell. Enter Prospero, Ferdinand, and Miranda
Prospero
1If I have too austerely punish'd you,2Your compensation makes amends, for I3Have given you here a third of mine own lifethirdthirdAs noted in the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, there could be several explanations for this line; some scholars believe that it is an indication of Prospero's age being 45 years as Miranda is known to 15 years of age in the play, others also believe that he his speaking metaphorically claiming that his daughter is one of the three most valuable treasures of this life, apart from his dukedom and his art. - [LD],4Or that for which I live; who once again5I tender to thy hand: all thy vexations6Were but my trials of thy love and thou7Hast strangely stood the test here, afore Heaven,8I ratify this my rich gift. O Ferdinand,9Do not smile at me that I boast her off,10For thou shalt find she will outstrip all praise11And make it halt behind her.
Ferdinand
12I do believe it13Against an oracle.oracleoracleAn oracle, in ancient Greece and Rome, was a person who was believed to be a medium through which the Gods would use to communicate with the masses. These people were often priests and priestesses (OED). - [LD].
Prospero
14Then, as my gift and thine own acquisition15Worthily purchased take my daughter: but16If thou dost break her virgin-knotvirginvirginProspero warns Ferdinand against taking his daughter’s virginity before their official union. - [LD] before17All sanctimonious ceremonies may18With full and holy rite be minister'd,19No sweet aspersion shall the heavens let fall20To make this contract grow: but barren hate,21Sour-eyed disdain and discord shall bestrew21The union of your bed with weeds so loathly21That you shall hate it both: therefore take heed,21As Hymen's lampshymenhymenHymen is the God of marriage of Greek and Roman mythology, who with his torches/lamps would signify if the union between a couple would prosper or perish, depending on whether the flame burned clear, or smoked. (Shakespeare Navigators) - [LD] shall light you.
Ferdinand
21As I hope21For quiet days, fair issue and long life,21With such love as 'tis now, the murkiest den,21The most opportune place, the strong'st suggestion.21Our worser genius can, shall never melt30Mine honour into lust, to take away31The edge of that day's celebration32When I shall think: or Phoebus' steedsphoebusphoebusPhoebus Apollo, the God of light or of the sun, was often characterized by riding his chariot of the sun drawn by his steeds. Here, Ferdinand vows to uphold Miranda's honor by not engaging in the consummation of their union until they are wed, lest the sun never set not the night ever arrive for their wedding night. (The Arden edition of Shakespeare The Tempest) - [LD] are founder'd,33Or Night kept chain'd below.
Prospero
Fairly spoke.34Sit then and talk with her; she is thine own.35What, Ariel! my industrious servant, Ariel!
Enter Ariel
Ariel
36What would my potent master? here I am.
Prospero
37Thou and thy meaner fellows your last service38Did worthily perform; and I must use you39In such another trick. Go bring the rabblerabblerabbleA loud and disorderly crowd (OED). Prospero gives Ariel the power to summon the spirits Iris, Ceres and Juno. The word rabble here is used in a derogatory sense. - [LD],40O'er whom I give thee power, here to this place:41Incite them to quick motion; for I must42Bestow upon the eyes of this young couple43Some vanity of mine artmasquemasqueA colored illustration showing an athletic young man dressed in fluttering fabric that resembles flamesSource: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41830403Prospero plans to use his magic to create the fantastic entertainment of a masque for the young couple. According to material hosted by the Royal Historic Palaces, masques were elaborate court entertainments staged for and often by nobility. They involved a variety of performance types--ballet, opera, music, and theater--combined in a highly visual and stylized manner. By the early 17th century, when Shakespeare wrote and performed The Tempest, they had become highly elaborate. The Royal Banqueting House, designed by Inigo Jones and completed in 1622, was purpose-built for the staging of masques. The most popular early court masques were developed by Jones in partnership with Ben Jonson. Thematically, masques represented and reinforced the divinity of the monarchy and symbolized a world of order in opposition to the baseness and disorder that reigned before the emergence of the Stuart Court. In The Tempest, Prospero conjures the masque as a gift for the young couple, Miranda and Ferdinand, who will marry upon their return to Naples and return order to the throne. This masque, like all masques, then, is a statement of political power. The image included here, from the illustrated catalog of masque designs owned by the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, shows a page dressed as a fiery spirit--this character, like the nymphs and reapers in Prospero’s masque, would likely have been a dancing role rather than a more important speaking role. An exceptional illustrated source is “Designs by Inigo Jones for Masques & Plays at Court,” a descriptive catalog of a key collection of masque designs, now hosted in JSTOR. The image included here, from that illustrated catalog of masque designs, shows a page dressed as a fiery spirit. - [LD]: it is my promise,44And they expect it from me.
Ariel
Presently?
Prospero
45Ay, with a twinktwinktwink"A winking of the eye" or the time taken to perform this action (OED n.1). The modern equivalent of the phrase 'with/in a twink' is 'in the blink of an eye'. - [LD].
Ariel
46Before you can say 'come' and 'go,'47And breathe twice and cry 'so, so,'48Each one, tripping on his toe,49Will be here with mop and mow.50Do you love me, master? no?
Prospero
51Dearly my delicate Ariel. Do not approach52Till thou dost hear me call.
Ariel
Well, I conceiveconceiveconceiveunderstand - [LD].
Exit
Prospero
53Look thou be true; do not give dalliance54Too much the rein: the strongest oaths are straw55To the fire i' the blood: be more abstemious,56Or else, good night your vow!
Ferdinand
I warrant you sir;57The white cold virgin snow upon my heart58Abates the ardour of my liverliverliverAccording to the OED (II.4.a), the liver was understood in the early modern period to be the location of the passions, especially love, bitterness, and anger. - [TH].
Prospero
Well.59Now come, my Ariel! bring a corollary corollaryAn obsolete term for something additional (OED 4). Prospero wants Ariel to summon an extra sprit just so they have enough. - [LD],60Rather than want a spirit: appear and pertly!61No tongue! all eyes! be silent.
Soft music Enter IrisIris IrisAriel conjures up spirits disguised as goddesses to entertain and celebrate the betrothal of the young couple. The first to appear is the spirit imitating Iris, the goddess of the rainbow and the messenger to the gods. She plays the 'presenter' of the masque. This annotation is referenced from the "Hudson Shakespeare Company". - [LD]
Iris
62Ceres, most bounteous lady, thy rich leasleasleaspastures or meadows - [LD]63Of wheat, rye, barley, vetchesvetchesvetchesVarious kinds of leguminous plants of the genus Vicia, used mainly as fodder (OED) - [LD], oats and pease;64Thy turfy mountains, where live nibbling sheep,65And flat meads thatch'd with stovermeadsmeadsA meadow covered with hay or straw for fodder. - [LD], them to keep;66Thy banks with pionedpionedpionedBanks that are formed through the excavation or trenching of the ground caused by the currents of springs. (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest") - [LD] and twilled brimstwilledtwilledThe weaving of ridges in 'brims' or bodies of water (OED). - [LD],67Which spongyspongyspongyThe rainy season of April - [LD]April at thy hest betrims,68To make cold nymphs chaste crowns; and thy broom -grovesbroombroomA groove covered with beautiful yellow papilionaceous flowers (OED). - [LD],69Whose shadow the dismissed bachelor loves,70Being lass-lornlass-lornlass-lornAs the word "love-lorn" means having lost a lover, "lass-lorn" means having lost a "lass"--a girl or woman. - [TH]: thy pole-clipt vineyard;71And thy sea-margeseaseaMargin of the sea or the sea-coast. - [LD], sterile and rocky-hard,72Where thou thyself dost air;--the queen o' the sky,73Whose watery archarcharchA rainbow, which is also the sign of Iris. - [LD] and messenger am I,74Bids thee leave these, and with her sovereign grace,75Here on this grass-plot, in this very place,76To come and sport: her peacocks fly amain:77Approach, rich Ceres, her to entertain.
Enter CeresCeres CeresThe second spirit presented is Ceres, the fertility goddess of the harvest, motherhood and earth. She only participates in the masque after making sure that Venus and Cupid, the goddess and god of love responsible for the kidnapping of her daughter, do not make an appearance. This further establishes Prospero's demand that Miranda remain chaste until their union. This annotation is referenced from the "Hudson Shakespeare Company". - [LD]
Ceres
78Hail, many-colour'd messenger, that ne'er79Dost disobey the wife of JupiterwifewifeJuno, the Greek goddess of marriage and the wife of Jupiter, the king of the gods. - [LD];80Who with thy saffron wings upon my flowers81Diffusest honey-drops, refreshing showers,82And with each end of thy blue bow dost crown83My boskyboskyboskyAs cited from the OED, bosky is defined as "Consisting of or covered with bushes or underwood; full of thickets, bushy". - [LD] acres and my unshrubb'd down,84Rich scarf to my proud earth; why hath thy queen85Summon'd me hither, to this short-grass'd green?
Iris
86A contract of true love to celebrate;87And some donation freely to estate88On the blest lovers.
Ceres
89Tell me, heavenly bowbowbowIris is frequently depicted with a rainbow, or bow. - [TH],90If Venusvenusvenus The Roman goddess of love, beauty, desire and fertility. She is also known as Aphrodite in the Greek mythology. - [LD] or her sonsonsonCeres here is referring to Cupid, the Roman god of love, born to Venus and Mercury, the god of translators and interpreters. - [LD], as thou dost know,91Do now attend the queen? Since they did plot92The means that dusky DisDisDisDis is another name for Pluto, god of the underworld. In mythology, he kidnaps Ceres' daughter Proserpina with help from Venus and Cupid, her 'blind' and 'waspish-headed' son of the next lines, who is typically depicted as blindly shooting his arrows of love. Ceres bargains with Pluto, and according to their deal, Proserpina spends half the year with her mother and half, with Pluto. During the spring and summer months, when mother and daughter are toogether, all is light and warmth; when Prosperpina is in the underworld, Ceres's sadness brings us the fall and winter months. - [TH] my daughter got,93Her and her blind boy's scandal'd company94I have forsworn.
Iris
95Of her society96Be not afraid: I met her deity97Cutting the clouds towards PaphosPaphosPaphosThe sacred home of the goddess Venus on the Island of Cyprus. - [LD] and her son98Dove-drawn with her. Here thought they to have done99Some wanton charm upon this man and maid,100Whose vows are, that no bed-right shall be paid101Till Hymen's torchtorchtorchProspero is forbidding Ferdinand and Miranda from having sex before they are married, or before the torch of Hymen, the Greek God of marriage, is lit. - [LD] be lighted: but vain;102Mars's hot minion is returned again;103Her waspish-headed son has broke his arrows,104Swears he will shoot no more but play with sparrows105And be a boy right out.
Ceres
106High'st queen of state,107Great Juno, comes; I know her by her gait.
Enter JunoJuno JunoThe third spirit enters the masque fashioned as Juno, the roman queen of the gods. - [LD]
Juno
108How does my bounteous sister? Go with me109To bless this twain, that they may Prosperous be110And honour'd in their issue.
They sing:
Juno
111Honour, riches, marriage-blessing,112Long continuance, and increasing,113Hourly joys be still upon you!114Juno sings her blessings upon you.
Ceres
115Earth's increase, foisonfoisonfoisonAn archaic term for abundance or bountiful supply (OED 1.a). - [LD]plenty,116Barns and garners never empty,117Vines and clustering bunches growing,118Plants with goodly burthen bowingbowingbowingPlants bending from the weight of their growth. - [LD];119Spring come to you at the farthest120In the very end of harvest!121Scarcity and want shall shun you;122Ceres' blessing so is on you.
Ferdinand
123This is a most majestic vision, and124Harmoniously charmingly. May I be bold125To think these spirits?
Prospero
Spirits, which by mine art126I have from their confines call'd to enact127My present fancies.
Ferdinand
Let me live here ever;128So rare a wonder'd father and a wife129Makes this place Paradise.
Juno and Ceres whisper, and send Iris on employment
Prospero
Sweet, now, silence!130Juno and Ceres whisper seriously;131There's something else to do: hush, and be mute,132Or else our spell is marr'd.
Iris
133You nymphsnymphsnymphsAccording to Britannica, nymphs are a class of low-ranking female deities from Greek mythology, often associated with sources of growing life such as trees and water. The Naiads presided over freshwater brooks, lakes, springs, and rivers. - [LD], call'd Naiads, of the windring brooks,134With your sedged crowns and ever-harmless looks,135Leave your crisp channels and on this green land136Answer your summons; Juno does command:137Come, temperate nymphs, and help to celebrate138A contract of true love; be not too late.139You sunburnt sicklemen, of August weary,140Come hither from the furrow and be merry:141Make holiday; your rye-straw hats put on142And these fresh nymphs encounter every one143In country footing.
Enter certain Reapers, properly habited: they join with the Nymphs in a graceful dance; towards the end whereof Prospero starts suddenly, and speaks; after which, to a strange, hollow, and confused noise, they heavily vanish
Prospero
144 Aside I had forgot that foul conspiracy 145Of the beast Caliban and his confederates146Against my life: the minute of their plot147Is almost come.Well done! avoid; no more!
Ferdinand
148This is strange: your father's in some passion149That works him strongly.
Miranda
Never till this day150Saw I him touch'd with anger so distemper'd.
Prospero
151You do look, my son, in a moved sort,152As if you were dismay'd: be cheerful, sir.153Our revels now are ended. These our actors,154As I foretold you, were all spirits and155Are melted into air, into thin air:156And, like the baseless fabric of this vision,157The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces,158The solemn temples, the great globe itself,159Ye all which it inherit, shall dissolve160And, like this insubstantial pageant faded,161Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff162As dreams are made on, and our little life163Is rounded with a sleep. Sir, I am vex'd;164Bear with my weakness; my, brain is troubled:165Be not disturb'd with my infirmity:166If you be pleased, retire into my cell167And there repose: a turn or two I'll walk,168To still my beating mind.
Ferdinand and Miranda
We wish your peace.
Exeunt
Prospero
169Come with a thought I thank thee, Ariel: come.
Enter Ariel
Ariel
170Thy thoughts I cleave to. What's thy pleasure?
Prospero
Spirit,171We must prepare to meet with Caliban.
Ariel
172Ay, my commander: when I presented Ceres,173I thought to have told thee of it, but I fear'd174Lest I might anger thee.
Prospero
175Say again, where didst thou leave these varletsvarletsvarletsAccording to the OED, a varlet was a term for a man or a young lad acting as a lowly servant. In this context however, Prospero uses it as an "abusive form of address" (OED 2.a). - [LD]?
Ariel
176I told you, sir, they were red-hot with drinking;177So fun of valour that they smote the air178For breathing in their faces; beat the ground179For kissing of their feet; yet always bending180Towards their project. Then I beat my tabourtabourtabourTabour/Tabor is an archaic term from the eleventh century for a small drum (OED). - [LD];181At which, like unback'd colts, they prick'd their ears,182Advanced their eyelids, lifted up their noses183As they smelt music: so I charm'd their ears184That calf-like they my lowing follow'd through185Tooth'd briers, sharp furzes, pricking goss and thorns,186Which entered their frail shins: at last I left them187I' the filthy-mantled pool beyond your cell,188There dancing up to the chins, that the foul lake189O'erstunk their feet.
Prospero
This was well done, my bird.190Thy shape invisible retain thou still:191The trumpery in my house, go bring it hither,192For stale to catch these thieves.
Ariel
I go, I go.
Exit
Prospero
193A devil, a born devil, on whose nature194Nurture can never stick; on whom my pains,195Humanely taken, all, all lost, quite lost;196And as with age his body uglier grows,197So his mind cankers. I will plague them all,198Even to roaring.Come, hang them on this line.
Prospero and Ariel remain invisible. Enter Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo, all wet
Caliban
199Pray you, tread softly, that the blind mole may not200Hear a foot fall: we now are near his cell.
Stephano
201Monster, your fairy, which you say is202a harmless fairy, has done little better than203played the Jack with us.
Trinculo
204Monster, I do smell all horse-piss; at205which my nose is in great indignation.
Stephano
206So is mine. Do you hear, monster? If I should take207a displeasure against you, look you,--
Trinculo
208Thou wert but a lost monster.
Caliban
209Good my lord, give me thy favour still.210Be patient, for the prize I'll bring thee to210Shall hoodwink this mischance: therefore speak softly.210All's hush'd as midnight yet.
Trinculo
211Ay, but to lose our bottles in the pool,--
Stephano
212There is not only disgrace and dishonour in that,213monster, but an infinite loss.
Trinculo
214That's more to me than my wetting: yet this is your215harmless fairy, monster.
Stephano
216I will fetch off my bottle, though I be o'er ears217for my labour.
Caliban
218Prithee, my king, be quiet. Seest thou here,219This is the mouth o' the cell: no noise, and enter.220Do that good mischief which may make this island221Thine own for ever, and I, thy Caliban,222For aye thy foot-licker.
Stephano
223Give me thy hand. I do begin to have bloody thoughts.
Trinculo
224O king Stephano! O peer! O worthy Stephano! look225what a wardrobe here is for thee!
Caliban
226Let it alone, thou fool; it is but trash.
Trinculo
227O, ho, monster! we know what belongs to a fripperyfripperyfripperyA store where previously-owned but quality cloghing is sold (OED). Trinculo chides Caliban for not knowing the value of the clothing. - [LD].228O king Stephano!
16
Stephano
229Put off that gown, Trinculo; by this hand, I'll have230that gown.
Trinculo
231Thy grace shall have it.
Caliban
232The dropsy drown this fool I what do you mean233To dote thus on such luggage? Let's alone234And do the murder first: if he awake,235From toe to crown he'll fill our skins with pinches,236Make us strange stuff.
Stephano
237Be you quiet, monster. Mistress linelinelineStephano and Trinculo engage in a riff on the multiple meanings of the word "line." Here, Stephano is comically addressing the clothesline (or line) in a formal manner. - [TH],238is not this my jerkin? Now is the jerkinjerkinjerkinA men's jacket made of leather either with sleaves or without, and having a short skirt. The historical equivalent of the waistcoat. (OED) - [LD] under239the lineunder_the_lineunder_the_line"Under the line" during this period was a reference to the equator (OED n, 10.b). - [TH]: now, jerkin, you are like to lose your240hair and prove a bald jerkin.
Trinculo
241Do, do: we steal by line and levelby_line_and_levelby_line_and_levelTo do something by line and level means to do it methodically and with care (OED n, 4.b). - [TH], an't like your grace.
Stephano
242I thank thee for that jest; here's a garment for't:243wit shall not go unrewarded while I am king of this244country. 'Steal by line and level' is an excellent245pass of patepasspass The OED defines 'pass of pate' as a "witty or cutting remark". In the literal sense, 'pate' was an archaic noun for the head or skull. Stephano creates his own pun Trinculo's clever wordplay. - [LD]; there's another garment for't.
Trinculo
246Monster, come, put some lime upon your fingerslimelimeAccording to the OED, lime or birdlime is a sticky material from holly bark, mistletoe berries and other plants, used to capture birds by applying it to branches where they might alight. - [LD], and247away with the rest.
Caliban
248I will have none on't: we shall lose our time,249And all be turn'd to barnacles, or to apes250With foreheads villanous low.
Stephano
251Monster, lay-to your fingers: help to bear this252away where my hogshead of wine is, or I'll turn you252out of my kingdom: go to, carry this.
Trinculo
253And this.
Stephano
254Ay, and this.
A noise of hunters heard. Enter divers Spiritsspirits spiritsThese noises mimicking the sounds of animals are produced by the actors off-stage. - [LD], in shape of dogs and hounds, and hunt them about, Prospero and Ariel setting them on
Prospero
255Hey, Mountain, hey!
Ariel
256Silver I there it goes, Silver!
Prospero
257Fury, Fury! there, Tyrant, there! hark! hark!258Go charge my goblins that they grind their joints259With dry convulsions, shorten up their sinews260With aged cramps, and more pinch-spotted make them261Than pard or cat o' mountain.
Ariel
Hark, they roar!
Prospero
262Let them be hunted soundly. At this hour263Lie at my mercy all mine enemies:264Shortly shall all my labours end, and thou265Shalt have the air at freedom: for a little266Follow, and do me service.
Exeunt
Act V Scene I. Before Prospero's cell. Enter Prospero in his magic robes, and Ariel
Prospero
1Now does my project gather to a head:2My charms crack not; my spirits obey; and time3Goes upright with his carriage. How's the day?
Ariel
4On the sixth hour; at which time, my lord,5You said our work should cease.
Prospero
5I did say so,6When first I raised the tempest. Say, my spirit,7How fares the king and's followers?
Ariel
7Confined together8In the same fashion as you gave in charge,9Just as you left them; all prisoners, sir,10In the line-grovegrovegrove A small group of trees that provide shade (OED). Here, the grove is acting as a barrier for Prospero's cell. - [LD] which weather-fends your cell;11They cannot budge till your release. The king,12His brother and yours, abide all three distracted13And the remainder mourning over them,14Brimful of sorrow and dismay; but chiefly15Him that you term'd, sir, 'The good old lord Gonzalo;'16His tears run down his beard, like winter's drops17From eaveseaveseavesEaves is an Old English term, signifying the edge of the roof over a building which overhangs off the sides, made typically of straws or reeds (OED) - [LD] of reeds. Your charm so strongly works 'em18That if you now beheld them, your affections19Would become tender.
Prospero
19Dost thou think so, spirit?
Ariel
20Mine would, sir, were I human.
Prospero
20And mine shall.21Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling22Of their afflictions, and shall not myself,23One of their kind, that relish all as sharply,24Passion as they, be kindlier moved than thou art?25Though with their high wrongs I am struck to the quick,26Yet with my nobler reason 'gaitist my fury27Do I take part: the rarer action is28In virtue than in vengeance: they being penitent,29The sole drift of my purpose doth extend30Not a frown further. Go release them, Ariel:31My charms I'll break, their senses I'll restore,32And they shall be themselves.
Ariel
32I'll fetch them, sir.
Exit
Prospero
33Ye elves of hills, brooks, standing lakes and groves,34And ye that on the sands with printless foot35Do chase the ebbing Neptune and do fly him36When he comes back; you demi-puppets that37By moonshine do the green sour ringlets make,38Whereof the ewe not bites, and you whose pastime39Is to make midnight mushrooms, that rejoice40To hear the solemn curfew; by whose aid,41Weak masters though ye be, I have bedimm'd42The noontide sun, call'd forth the mutinous winds,43And 'twixt the green sea and the azured vault44Set roaring war: to the dread rattling thunder45Have I given fire and rifted Jove's stout oak46With his own bolt; the strong-based promontory47Have I made shake and by the spurs pluck'd up48The pine and cedar: graves at my command49Have waked their sleepers, opedopedopedAccording to the OED, oped is a transitive verb which means, " To open. Frequently of an eye, door, or window." - [LD], and let 'em forth50By my so potent art. But this rough magic51I here abjure, and, when I have required52Some heavenly music, which even now I do,53To work mine end upon their senses that54This airy charm is for, I'll break my staff,55Bury it certain fathoms in the earth,56And deeper than did ever plummet sound57I'll drown my book.58A solemn air and the best comforter59To an unsettled fancy cure thy brains,60Now useless, boil'd within thy skull! There standstandstandAround this time, the actors who are yet transfixed by Prospero's sorcery enter the stage led by Ariel. Prospero then addresses each of the afflicted before releasing them from their state. - [LD],61For you are spell-stopp'd.62Holy Gonzalo, honourable man,63Mine eyes, even sociable to the show of thine,64Fall fellowly drops. The charm dissolves apace,65And as the morning steals upon the night,66Melting the darkness, so their rising senses67Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle68Their clearer reason. O good Gonzalo,69My true preserver, and a loyal sir70To him you follow'st! I will pay thy graces71Home both in word and deed. Most cruelly72Didst thou, Alonso, use me and my daughter:73Thy brother was a furtherer in the act.74Thou art pinch'd fort now, Sebastian. Flesh and blood,75You, brother mine, that entertain'd ambition,76Expell'd remorse and nature; who, with Sebastian,77Whose inward pinches therefore are most strong,78Would here have kill'd your king; I do forgive thee,79Unnatural though thou art. Their understanding80Begins to swell, and the approaching tide81Will shortly fill the reasonable shore82That now lies foul and muddy. Not one of them83That yet looks on me, or would know me Ariel,84Fetch me the hat and rapier in my cell:85I will discase mediscasediscaseProspero, with Ariel's help, removes his magical robe and staff, and dresses himself in the clothes he had worn while he was still Duke of Milan perhaps to keep them in the dark about his association with the tempest. "Discase" literally means to take something out of its case, but colloquially it means to undress. - [LD], and myself present86As I was sometime Milan: quickly, spirit;87Thou shalt ere long be free.
Ariel
88Where the bee sucks. there suck I:89In a cowslip's bell I lie;90There I couch when owls do cry.91On the bat's back I do fly92After summer merrily.93Merrily, merrily shall I live now94Under the blossom that hangs on the bough.
Prospero
95Why, that's my dainty Ariel! I shall miss thee:96But yet thou shalt have freedom: so, so, so.97To the king's ship, invisible as thou art:98There shalt thou find the mariners asleep99Under the hatches; the master and the boatswain100Being awake, enforce them to this place,101And presently, I prithee.
Ariel
102I drink the air before me, and return103Or ere your pulse twice beat.
Exit
Gonzalo
104All torment, trouble, wonder and amazement105Inhabits here: some heavenly power guide us106Out of this fearful country!
Prospero
106Behold, sir king,107The wronged Duke of Milan, Prospero:108For more assurance that a living prince109Does now speak to thee, I embrace thy body;110And to thee and thy company I bid111A hearty welcome.
Alonso
111Whether thou best he or no,112Or some enchanted trifle to abuse me,113As late I have been, I not know: thy pulse114Beats as of flesh and blood; and, since I saw thee,115The affliction of my mind amends, with which,116I fear, a madness held me: this must crave,117An if this be at all, a most strange story.118Thy dukedom I resign and do entreat119Thou pardon me my wrongs. But how should Prospero120Be living and be here?
Prospero
120First, noble friend,121Let me embrace thine age, whose honour cannot122Be measured or confined.
Gonzalo
122Whether this be123Or be not, I'll not swear.
Prospero
123You do yet taste124Some subtilties o' the isle, that will not let you125Believe things certain. Welcome, my friends all!126But you, my brace of lords, were I so minded,127I here could pluck his highness' frown upon you128And justify you traitors: at this time129I will tell no tales.
Sebastian
129 Aside The devil speaks in him.
Prospero
129No.130For you, most wicked sir, whom to call brother131Would even infect my mouth, I do forgive132Thy rankest fault; all of them; and require133My dukedom of thee, which perforce, I know,134Thou must restore.
Alonso
134If thou be'st Prospero,135Give us particulars of thy preservation;136How thou hast met us here, who three hours since137Were wreck'd upon this shore; where I have lost--138How sharp the point of this remembrance is!--139My dear son Ferdinand.
Prospero
139I am woe for't, sir.
Alonso
140Irreparable is the loss, and patience141Says it is past her cure.
Prospero
141I rather think142You have not sought her help, of whose soft grace143For the like loss I have her sovereign aid144And rest myself content.
Alonso
144You the like loss!
Prospero
145As great to me as late; and, supportable146To make the dear loss, have I means much weaker147Than you may call to comfort you, for I148Have lost my daughter.
Alonso
148A daughter?149O heavens, that they were living both in Naples,150The king and queen there! that they were, I wish151Myself were mudded in that oozy bed152Where my son lies. When did you lose your daughter?
Prospero
153In this last tempest. I perceive these lords154At this encounter do so much admire155That they devour their reason and scarce think156Their eyes do offices of truth, their words157Are natural breath: but, howsoe'er you have158Been justled from your senses, know for certain159That I am Prospero and that very duke160Which was thrust forth of Milan, who most strangely161Upon this shore, where you were wreck'd, was landed,162To be the lord on't. No more yet of this;163For 'tis a chronicle of day by daychroniclechronicleIt is a very long narrative to be recounted over the course of many days. - [LD],164Not a relation for a breakfast nor165Befitting this first meeting. Welcome, sir;166This cell's my court: here have I few attendants167And subjects none abroad: pray you, look in.168My dukedom since you have given me again,169I will requite you with as good a thing;170At least bring forth a wonder, to content ye171As much as me my dukedom.
Here Prospero discoversdiscovers discovers A discovery space on the stage is an area enclosed by curtains which is used to reveal objects or characters. Sometimes the color of the curtains will also indicate the theme of the tale, as in the case of the tragedy Doctor Faustus where black curtains are sometimes used to signal the dark events of the play ("Reconstructing the Rose"). - [LD] Ferdinand and Miranda playing at chess
Miranda
172Sweet lord, you play me false.
Ferdinand
172No, my dear'st love,173I would not for the world.
Miranda
174Yes, for a score of kingdoms you should wrangle,175And I would call it, fair play.
Alonso
175If this prove176A vision of the Island, one dear son177Shall I twice lose.
Sebastian
177A most high miracle!
Ferdinand
178Though the seas threaten, they are merciful;179I have cursed them without cause.
Kneels
Alonso
179Now all the blessings180Of a glad father compass thee about!181Arise, and say how thou camest here.
Miranda
181O, wonder!182How many goodly creatures are there here!183How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world,184That has such people in't!
Prospero
184'Tis new to thee.
Alonso
185What is this maid with whom thou wast at play?186Your eld'st acquaintance cannot be three hours:187Is she the goddess that hath sever'd us,188And brought us thus together?
Ferdinand
188Sir, she is mortal;189But by immortal Providence she's mine:190I chose her when I could not ask my father191For his advice, nor thought I had one. She192Is daughter to this famous Duke of Milan,193Of whom so often I have heard renown,194But never saw before; of whom I have195Received a second life; and second father196This lady makes him to me.
Alonso
196I am hers:197But, O, how oddly will it sound that I198Must ask my child forgiveness!
Prospero
198There, sir, stop:199Let us not burthen our remembrance with200A heaviness that's gone.
Gonzalo
200I have inly wept,201Or should have spoke ere this. Look down, you god,202And on this couple drop a blessed crown!203For it is you that have chalk'd forth the way204Which brought us hither.
Alonso
204I say, Amen, Gonzalo!
Gonzalo
205Was Milan thrust from Milan, that his issue206Should become kings of Naples? O, rejoice207Beyond a common joy, and set it down208With gold on lasting pillars: In one voyage209Did Claribel her husband find at Tunis,210And Ferdinand, her brother, found a wife211Where he himself was lost, Prospero his dukedom212In a poor isle and all of us ourselves213When no man was his own.
Alonso
213 To Ferdinand and Miranda Give me your hands: 214Let grief and sorrow still embrace his heart215That doth not wish you joy!
Gonzalo
215Be it so! Amen!216O, look, sir, look, sir! here is more of us:217I prophesied, if a gallows were on land,218This fellow could not drown. [to Boatswain] Now, blasphemy,219That swear'st grace o'erboard, not an oath on shore?220Hast thou no mouth by land? What is the news?
Boatswain
221The best news is, that we have safely found222Our king and company; the next, our ship--223Which, but three glasses since, we gave out split--224Is tight and yare and bravely rigg'd as when225We first put out to sea.
Ariel
225Sir, all this service 226Have I done since I went.
Prospero
226My tricksy spirit!
Alonso
227These are not natural events; they strengthen228From strange to stranger. Say, how came you hither?
Boatswain
229If I did think, sir, I were well awake,230I'ld strive to tell you. We were dead of sleep,231And--how we know not--all clapp'd under hatches;232Where but even now with strange and several noises233Of roaring, shrieking, howling, jingling chains,234And more diversity of sounds, all horrible,235We were awaked; straightway, at liberty;236Where we, in all her trim, freshly beheld237Our royal, good and gallant ship, our master238Capering to eye her: on a trice, so please you,239Even in a dream, were we divided from them240And were brought moping hither.
Ariel
240Was't well done?
Prospero
241 Aside to Ariel Bravely, my diligence. Thou shalt be free.
Alonso
242This is as strange a maze as e'er men trod243And there is in this business more than nature244Was ever conduct of: some oracle245Must rectify our knowledge.
Prospero
245Sir, my liege,246Do not infest your mind with beating on247The strangeness of this business; at pick'd leisure248Which shall be shortly, single I'll resolve you,249Which to you shall seem probable, of every250These happen'd accidents; till when, be cheerful251And think of each thing well.Aside to Ariel251Come hither, spirit:252Set Caliban and his companions free;253Untie the spell.Exit Ariel253How fares my gracious sir?254There are yet missing of your company255Some few odd lads that you remember not.
Re-enter Ariel, driving in Caliban, Stephano and Trinculo, in their stolen apparel
Stephano
256Every man shift for all the rest, andlet no man257take care for himself; for all is but fortune. CoragiocoragiocoragioAn exhortatory Italian exclamation for "Courage!" (OED) - [LD],258bully-monster, coragio!
Trinculo
259If these be true spies which I wear in my head,260here's a goodly sight.
Caliban
261O Setebos, these be brave spirits indeed!262How fine my master is! I am afraid263He will chastise me.
Sebastian
263Ha, ha!264What things are these, my lord Antonio?265Will money buy 'em?
Antonio
265Very like; one of them266Is a plain fish, and, no doubt, marketable.
Prospero
267Mark but the badges of these men, my lords,268Then say if they be true. This mis-shapen knave,269His mother was a witch, and one so strong270That could control the moon, make flows and ebbs,271And deal in her command without her power.272These three have robb'd me; and this demi-devil--273For he's a bastard one--had plotted with them274To take my life. Two of these fellows you275Must know and own; this thing of darkness I276Acknowledge mine.
Caliban
276I shall be pinch'd to death.
Alonso
277Is not this Stephano, my drunken butler?
Sebastian
278He is drunk now: where had he wine?
Alonso
279And Trinculo is reeling ripe: where should they280Find this grand liquor that hath gilded 'em?281How camest thou in this pickle?
Trinculo
282I have been in such a pickle since I saw you283last that, I fear me, will never out of my bones: I shall 284not fear fly-blowing.
Sebastian
285Why, how now, Stephano!
Stephano
286O, touch me not; I am not Stephano, but a287cramp.
Prospero
288You'ld be king o' the isle, sirrahsirrahsirrahAccording to the OED, it's an archaic "term of address used to men or boys, expressing contempt, reprimand, or assumption of authority on the part of the speaker". - [LD]?
Stephano
289I should have been a sore one then.
Alonso
290This is a strange thing as e'er I look'd on.
Pointing to Caliban
Prospero
291He is as disproportion'd in his manners292As in his shape. Go, sirrah, to my cell;293Take with you your companions; as you look294To have my pardon, trim it handsomely.
Caliban
295Ay, that I will; and I'll be wise hereafter296And seek for grace. What a thrice-double ass297Was I, to take this drunkard for a god298And worship this dull fool!
Prospero
298Go to; away!
Alonso
299Hence, and bestow your luggage where you found it.
Sebastian
300Or stole it, rather.
Exeunt Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo
Prospero
301Sir, I invite your highness and your train302To my poor cell, where you shall take your rest303For this one night; which, part of it, I'll waste304With such discourse as, I not doubt, shall make it305Go quick away; the story of my life306And the particular accidents gone by307Since I came to this isle: and in the morn308I'll bring you to your ship and so to Naples,309Where I have hope to see the nuptial310Of these our dear-beloved solemnized;311And thence retire me to my Milan, where312Every third thought shall be my grave.
Alonso
312I long313To hear the story of your life, which must314Take the ear strangely.
Prospero
314I'll deliver all;315And promise you calm seas, auspicious gales316And sail so expeditious that shall catch317Your royal fleet far off.317 [aside to Ariel] My Ariel, chick,318That is thy charge: then to the elements319Be free, and fare thou well! [to the others] Please you, draw near.
Exeunt
EPILOGUEepilogue epilogueAn epilogue serves as a conclusionary poem or speech to a play, with the main purpose of tying up the many subplots and providing some closure for the characters at the end of the tale. It is usually performed in the form of a monologue in which applause is sought, addressed directly to the audience. - [LD] spoken by Prospero
[Prospero]
1Now my charms are all o'erthrown,2And what strength I have's mine own,3Which is most faint: now, 'tis true,4I must be here confined by you,5Or sent to Naples. Let me not,6Since I have my dukedom got7And pardon'd the deceiver, dwell8In this bare island by your spell;9But release me from my bands10With the help of your good hands:11Gentle breath of yours my sails12Must fill, or else my project fails,13Which was to please. Now I want14Spirits to enforce, art to enchant,15And my ending is despair,16Unless I be relieved by prayer,17Which pierces so that it assaults18Mercy itself and frees all faults.19 As you from crimes would pardon'd be, 20 Let your indulgence set me free.
FINIS

Footnotes

thunder_In 1611, when Shakespeare's The Tempest was first performed, theatres used a mechanism known as a thunder machine, which was essentially a long wooden box balanced like a seesaw, containing a large cannon ball that when rolled around produced a loud noise resembling thunder. To create the effect of lightening, stage hands would prepare powdered resin which would be thrown onto a flame. Lighting a firecracker attached to a wire extending from the roof of the stage to the floor would create the illusion of a lightening bolt ("Special Effects").
boatswain_Pronounced "bosun," a boatswain is the person who manages the crew of a ship and the ship's equipment (OED n.1).
Dee_Photograph showing alchemical items belonging to John Dee, used in early modern magic, from the British Library.Source: Dee's spirit mirror and other alchemical objectsIt is often thought that Prospero was modeled by Shakespeare on John Dee, a well-known polymath, magus, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. According to the British Library, a magus someone who "understands the cosmos and man's place in it [sic]" through knowledge and experimentation in fields such as chemistry (then alchemy), mathematics, astrology, and hermetic studies of religion and culture. A "controversial figure" and force of both good and evil, the magus sought to attain ultimate wisdom about the working of the universe. The image included here, from the British Library, shows (right to left) Dee’s spirit mirror showstone, a crystal ball, mystically engraved wax discs, a wooden case, and an engraved gold disc illustrating a vision of Dee’s colleague, Edward Kelley. Dee's "showstone' was a reflective piece of volcanic ash he would use to conjure and converse with angels, recording his conversations into his ‘angelic diaries’. As an advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, Dee advocated for imperial expansion into the New World. To learn more about Dee's advocacy of the British Empire in the Atlantic, see Glyn Parry's scholarly article, "John Dee and the Elizabethan British Empire in Its European Context."
stinking_Miranda here imagines the stormy sky raining "stinking pitch" instead of water. Pitch is a resin commonly used for waterproofing boats.
welkin_The welkin is a poetic and now archaic term referring to the sky. Miranda uses figurative language to describe the the height of the waves, which "[mount or rise] to the welkin's cheek."
fire_The lightening.
cell_A very small or humble dwelling.
art_Prospero is speaking to his robe, calling it his "art," and suggesting to us that the robe is lain down on some surface by Miranda.
betid_Befell or happened to (OED).
bootless_Ineffective questioning (OED).
abysm_An immense depth, a chasm which seems to have no end (OED).
aught_Aught is an archaic adverb which means "to any extent, in any respect, at all" (OED C.1), and "ere" means before or formerly (OED 4.a).
holp_This is the past participle of the word "help," spelled this way from the 14th to the 17th century (OED).
teen_Now rarely used, teen is a noun that refers to suffering or pain (OED n. 2a).
signories_ A historical term referring to governing bodies or assemblies specifically of an Italian state (OED n, 5).
verdure_ According to the OED, this refers to the freshness of a flourishing green plant.
ignoble_According to the OED, ignoble is defined as being dishonorable in terms of character or intent.
inveterate_ Entrenched, long-standing, persistent, with the suggestion of disease (OED).
durst_ An archaic past tense of the verb "to dare" (OED).
bark_A bark is a small boat.
cherubim_A cherub is a biblical angel, with a related sense common in the early 17th century that also means a beloved woman (OED n. 5b).
burthen_An alternative spelling of burden.
prescience_Prescience is both a quality attributed to God and the characteristic of foresight that a human might possess (OED).
zenith_A term from astronomy, the zenith is the highest point the sun or moon reaches in the sky (OED).
give_The Arden edition of The Tempest glosses this as "succumb to it." Prospero is commanding Miranda to fall asleep.
ariel_Late 18th century engraving showing Miranda, Prospero, Caliban, and ArielSource: Late 18th century engraving from the Metropolitan Museum of Art showing Miranda, Prospero, Caliban, and ArielAfter Miranda falls asleep, Prospero is typically understood to put his magical robe back on as Ariel comes onto the stage. The image here, an engraving after Henry Fusili, shows a late 18th century rendition of Miranda, Prospero, Caliban, and the airy spirit Ariel (Metropolitan Museum of Art).
Joves_Jove, more famously known as Jupiter, is the most powerful Roman God and is known to overthrow his enemies using his bolt of lightening. His Greek equivalent is Zeus.
nigh_An old fashioned way of saying nearby or almost (OED).
sad_Sleeping crossed armed (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest)
Bermoothes_graphicThe Island of Bermuda was devoid of any habitation by indigenous groups before it was discovered by accident by the Spanish sailor Juan Bermúdez in 1503. A flotilla from England, includng the Sea Venture, was shipwrecked here on their way to restock the Jamestown Colony in Virginia (Virginia was named after Elizabeth I, the "Virgin Queen," and Jamestown, after King James I). The wreck of the Sea Venture in 1609, is thought to be a contemporary inspiration for The Tempest. After almost a year, the crew was largely able to leave the Island with ships they built during that time. The Island wasn’t colonized until the seventeenth century, after the crew of the Sea Venture returned to England with their tale. Enslaved people were first brought to the Island in 1617. The image included here shows a 17th century map of the Island of Bermuda by Willem Janszoon Blaeu, from the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center. Content of annotation sourced from Barry Lawrence Ruderman.
glasses_Two hourglasses past midday would be 2 p.m. (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
six_Whatever Prospero is planning must happen between 2 and 6 p.m. (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest). It is important to keep in mind that in Elizabethan England, plays would have typically been performed in the afternoon. The action of the play roughly corresponds to the duratioon of the play being acted.
hoop_A hoop is a circular band; here, the witch Sycorax has acquired a hunchback with age (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
Argier_graphicSycorax seems to have been born in Argier or Algiers, the capital and chief sea port of Algeria in North Africa, on the Mediterranean coast. Invaded throughout its history, Algiers rose to prominence under the Berber dynasties in the 10th century. Algiers became became home to many Muslim and Jewish refugees escaping Spain in the begining of the 16th century. At the time The Tempest was written, Algiers was under Ottoman rule, and it became associated with piracy (Britannica). The image included here, from the Library of Congress’ first volume of Civitates Orbis Terrarum (1588), shows the white buildings of the fort--and which gave it its French name, “Alger la Blanche” (El-Bahdja in Arabic).
strike_Denoting how frequently a millwheel blade would strike the water (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
invisible_Here, Prospero hands Ariel a robe that represents a sea-nymph. Whenever the audience later sees Ariel in this robe, they are to assume that he is invisible to every other character on stage save Prospero (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
Awake_Ariel exits the stage. He now speaks to Miranda.
Heaviness_Miranda is unaware that her father put her to sleep.
Caliban_ graphicCaliban is a complex character. He is described as a misshapen creature, described as a "monster" "not honored with a human shape." He is treated as an inferior by the humans in the play. The image here, sourced from Wikimedia Commons, is an 18th century etching of Caliban by John Hamilton Mortimer (MET, 62.602.163).
blow_Warm damp air carrying airborne diseases, according to the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest.
pen_Stop your breath (OED v).
sty_To confine.
honour_When used to describe men, "honour" or "honor" refers to the virtues of nobility of spirit, distinction. However, when applied to women--like Miranda--the word most typically refers to sexual chastity or virginity (OED 7.a)
print_Prospero is here using the word "print" as in "impression," but with connotations deriving from the new invention of printing.
best_"You are advised to" (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
chanticleer_A dominating rooster in a courtyard.
canker_A disease that consumes vegetation (OED).
VouchsafeTo grant or bestow.
ebb_At low tide.
Soft_To kindly ask for silence (OED adv.).
name_Prospero accuses Ferdinand of "usurping" his father's position as king by claiming that he will make Miranda "queen of Naples".
Draws_Ferdinand draws his sword. Prospero casts a spell to transfix Ferdinand while neither he nor Miranda are aware of this.
surety_According to the OED, a surety in this sense is "a person who is liable for the default or misconduct of another, or for ensuring the performance of some act on another's part, such as payment of a debt or appearance in court" (surety n. 2a).
hark_Calling to attention, to listen, to harken to (OED).
unwonted_Unusual
Beseech_To plead or beg with great earnest (OED v. 2a).
prithee_A synonym for the word "beseech." An archaic form of "I pray thee" (OED).
dollar_ A photographic representation of thalersSource: A photographic representation of thalers from Wikimedia CommonsAccording to the OED, a dollar is the English word for the thaler, a German coin of varying value used from the 16th century. The image here, sourced from Wikimedia Commons, shows several thalers.
DolourSorrow or grief (OED). Gonzalo is playing along with Sebastian's jesting.
Fie_A Middle English expression of disgust, used to refer to children to "excite shame for some unbecoming action" (OED).
spendthriftSomeone who irresponsibly squanders his income (OED 2).
fen_Smelly marsh lands.
Afric_An old form of Africa (OED).
Tunis_Tunis is the capital city in Tunisia, a country in North Africa. The northern coast of the country, where Tunis is, is on the Mediterranean Sea.
Dido_In Greek mythology, Dido, a widow, falls in love with Aeneas and kills herself after he leaves her to go and build the city of Rome (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
Carthage_Carthage and Tunis weren't the same city, but later on, Carthage was usurped, and Tunis took it's place as the main powerful state of the region (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
harp_ Sebastian is referring to the harp that Amphion, son of Zeus is known to have used when constructing the walls of Thebes, a city in Boeotia, Greece (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
strange_fish_This phrase may be a reference to the sea creatures that were often depicted in the oceans of early modern maps. While in earlier periods, when little was known about the shapes of land masses, these sea creatures were signs of danger and the unknown; however, by the late 16th and 17th centuries, sea travel and exploration was on the rise, and this led to more and more complete maps. As the unknown declined, so too did representationos of sea monsters. They transitioned into less threatening and more whimsical fish or whales, and in the modern world, they all but disappeared cartographically. To learn more about the "strange fish" of early modern cartography, see "Mapping the Oceans: How Cartographers Saw the World in the Age of Discovery" at Lapham's Quarterly.
swoln_According to the OED (IV. 5a), breasted in this sense means "To move forwards directly into, to confront head-on; to climb." Francisco means to say that he witnessed Ferdinand survive contact with a large wave.
chirurgeonly"Chirurgeon" is an older spelling of "surgeon" (OED).
plantation_The word "plantation" is significant in the early modern period, as it refers to colonization; Gonzalo imagines his dominion over the island. It also has another sense, meaning a site of planting, which Antonio plays on in the next line.
common_Gonzalo seems to be suggesting that the trappings of modern civilization lead to corruptiono and want. He imagines a pure, idyllic place without violence, commerce, or vice.
knaves_Dishonorable men.
fowling_A way of catching birds at night by flashing them with a bright light, so as to disorient them (OED).
heavy_Ariel is working magic to put them to sleep.
sloth_Sebastian says that he is naturally slothful or slow; he is naturally driven to ebb, and not to flow.
prate_To chatter irrelevantly.
chough_A chatterer.
feater_A better fit.
kibe_According to the OED 1a., a kibe is a Middle English word meaning "A chapped or ulcerated chilblain, esp. one on the heel." A chilblain is a red, rough, patchy area of skin.
inch_As cited from the OED, "Little by little, by every inch."
urchin_Apparitions of goblins or elves which sometimes resembled the form of a hedgehog (OED n.1c).
addersAny of the various types of venomous snakes or serpents (OED).
PoorJohn_Poor-John is a "fish salted and dried for food" (OED).
make_According to the The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, the archaic phrase "to make a man" meant to make a man's fortune.
doit_"The half of an English farthing, as the type of a very small sum" (OED 1.a).
gaberdine_A loose upper garment for men, which worked as a coat or gown woven from coarse fabric (OED A.1.a)
tang_According to the OED, a pungent or stinging effect (II.5.c); could also mean the strong ringing sound produced when a large bell or an object with sonorous quality is struck (n.2).
Ind_As cited from the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, Stephano refers to Caliban as a "savage" and compares him to the "men of Ind," whether they are referring to the West Indies (in the Caribbean Sea) or East India is contested. The East India Company was chartered by Elizabeth I in 1600. To read more about Shakespeare and India, see this somewhat dated essay by John Draper.
fourlegs_According to notes in most annotated versions of the play, Stephano here uses a proverbial expression: "As proper a man as ever went on two legs." However, he substitutes "four legs" for "two," given the monstrous creature he sees.
agueA state of distress, fear, causing the body to shake or shiver (OED 2).
Neapolitans_A citizen of the former kingdom of Naples in Southern Italy (OED).
man_Trinculo is referring to the folktale about a man who was banished to the moon because he was caught working on the sabbath day (Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest).
pignuts_From the OED, 'The sweetish edible tuber of Conopodium majus, a fine-leaved plant of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) of acid pastures and woods in western Europe; the plant itself. Also called earthnut.'
marmoset_A small monkey to be captured as a pet or for eating
filberts_"The fruit or nut of the cultivated hazel" (OED)
scamelsAs noted in the Arden Shakespeare, the meaning of this word is heavily contested, possibly because of printing errors. Scholars assume that it could mean "seamews," a bird that feeds on fish, or a custacean, bird or a fish that frequent rocks. The OED defines the meaning as uncertain.
crabbed_ A verb that originated in the 1400's, which means to be Irritated or enraged. (OED v. 1a)
sinews_ Fibrous chords that connect the muscles to the bone (OED).
worm_ Prospero is using the noun worm as a term of endearment when speaking about his daughter, also working as a metaphor her delicate and simple nature.
hest_ An archaic word that means command or behest (OED).
Admired_ The name Miranda means "to be wondered at" or to be admired. Ferdinand is seen to be using word-play.
foil_ Here, foil either refers to a fencing sword or to a verb that means to thwart.
jewel_ Miranda presents her modesty, which also may refer to her virginity, as her greatly priced jewel that she is able to offer Ferdinand as dowry for marriage which represents what society greatly valued in a young woman when it came to marriage.
fly_Flies that generally lay their eggs in carcasses.
hour_ Another indication of the procession of time in this play.
severallyThey exit at different points from the stage.
totters_An unsteady or shaky movement (OED).
standard_According to the OED, A standard is an obsolete term, referring to "a person who carries a standard, often as a permanent duty'.
constable_Trinculo claims that he is ready to fight a constable, who is the chief officer of the court (OED).
deboshed_A variant of the term debauched--over-indulging in sensual pleasures, including drinking (OED).
invisibleAriel is accompanied by his fellow spirits as he sings his song.
ninny_"Pied" refers to the many-colored or mixed-up costume a jester would wear. A "ninny" is a simpleton.
brine_Salty sea water.
pox_An exclamation of frustration or anger; Trinculo wishes the pox--syphillis--upon Stephano's drinking. (OED).
murrain_a deadly infectious disease (OED).
paunch_To stab or wound in the stomach (OED).
wezand_The throat or windpipe.
nonpareilincomparable
afeard_The following speech by Caliban is one of the most famous and studied passages of the play. Caliban who had lived his entire life on the island feels a deeper connection to its beauty and richness.
lakin_An obsolete form of the phrase 'by our Lady', denoting the Virgin Mary (OED n.2).
above_In this scene, the upper stage allows Prospero's character secretly observe the plot transpiring below on the main stage.
drollery_A comical entertainment in the form of a puppet-show (OED 2.a)
credit_lacking in credibility
certes_An archaic form of the term meaning certainly, assuredly (OED).
bulls_Gonzalo describes the physical attributes of the indigenous people living on the island, commenting that their necks have a similar folding of excessive loose skin that hangs from the throats of cattle (OED).
harpy_An illustration of a harpy from 1642Source: Illustration of a harpy from Monstrorum Historia (1642)Ariel appears in the form of a harpy, a greedy and fearsome mythological creature that metes out divine justice and vengeance. Harpies have the head and body of a woman and the wings and claws of a bird. Ariel is imagined as wreaking the 'divine' vengeance of Prospero. This annotation and image are sourced from World History Encyclopedia. The image here, also from the World History Encyclopedia, is an illustration of the harpy from Ulisse Aldrovandi's Monstrorum Historia, Bologna, 1642.
surfeited_The insatiable nature of the sea.
dowle_The OED define dowl as "One of the filaments of fibres of a feather'
requit_To repay, compensation (OED)
mocks_grimacing facial expressions
knit_Entangled by their temporary madness
plummetAs cited from the OED, 'A piece of lead or other heavy material attached to a line, used for measuring the depth of water; a sounding lead' or a plumb.
third_As noted in the Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest, there could be several explanations for this line; some scholars believe that it is an indication of Prospero's age being 45 years as Miranda is known to 15 years of age in the play, others also believe that he his speaking metaphorically claiming that his daughter is one of the three most valuable treasures of this life, apart from his dukedom and his art.
oracle_An oracle, in ancient Greece and Rome, was a person who was believed to be a medium through which the Gods would use to communicate with the masses. These people were often priests and priestesses (OED).
virgin_Prospero warns Ferdinand against taking his daughter’s virginity before their official union.
phoebus_Phoebus Apollo, the God of light or of the sun, was often characterized by riding his chariot of the sun drawn by his steeds. Here, Ferdinand vows to uphold Miranda's honor by not engaging in the consummation of their union until they are wed, lest the sun never set not the night ever arrive for their wedding night. (The Arden edition of Shakespeare The Tempest)
rabble_A loud and disorderly crowd (OED). Prospero gives Ariel the power to summon the spirits Iris, Ceres and Juno. The word rabble here is used in a derogatory sense.
masque_A colored illustration showing an athletic young man dressed in fluttering fabric that resembles flamesSource: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41830403Prospero plans to use his magic to create the fantastic entertainment of a masque for the young couple. According to material hosted by the Royal Historic Palaces, masques were elaborate court entertainments staged for and often by nobility. They involved a variety of performance types--ballet, opera, music, and theater--combined in a highly visual and stylized manner. By the early 17th century, when Shakespeare wrote and performed The Tempest, they had become highly elaborate. The Royal Banqueting House, designed by Inigo Jones and completed in 1622, was purpose-built for the staging of masques. The most popular early court masques were developed by Jones in partnership with Ben Jonson. Thematically, masques represented and reinforced the divinity of the monarchy and symbolized a world of order in opposition to the baseness and disorder that reigned before the emergence of the Stuart Court. In The Tempest, Prospero conjures the masque as a gift for the young couple, Miranda and Ferdinand, who will marry upon their return to Naples and return order to the throne. This masque, like all masques, then, is a statement of political power. The image included here, from the illustrated catalog of masque designs owned by the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire, shows a page dressed as a fiery spirit--this character, like the nymphs and reapers in Prospero’s masque, would likely have been a dancing role rather than a more important speaking role. An exceptional illustrated source is “Designs by Inigo Jones for Masques & Plays at Court,” a descriptive catalog of a key collection of masque designs, now hosted in JSTOR. The image included here, from that illustrated catalog of masque designs, shows a page dressed as a fiery spirit.
twink_"A winking of the eye" or the time taken to perform this action (OED n.1). The modern equivalent of the phrase 'with/in a twink' is 'in the blink of an eye'.
conceive_understand
liver_According to the OED (II.4.a), the liver was understood in the early modern period to be the location of the passions, especially love, bitterness, and anger.
corollaryAn obsolete term for something additional (OED 4). Prospero wants Ariel to summon an extra sprit just so they have enough.
Iris_Ariel conjures up spirits disguised as goddesses to entertain and celebrate the betrothal of the young couple. The first to appear is the spirit imitating Iris, the goddess of the rainbow and the messenger to the gods. She plays the 'presenter' of the masque. This annotation is referenced from the "Hudson Shakespeare Company".
leas_pastures or meadows
vetches_Various kinds of leguminous plants of the genus Vicia, used mainly as fodder (OED)
meads_A meadow covered with hay or straw for fodder.
pioned_Banks that are formed through the excavation or trenching of the ground caused by the currents of springs. (The Arden Shakespeare edition of The Tempest")
twilled_The weaving of ridges in 'brims' or bodies of water (OED).
spongy_The rainy season of April
broom_A groove covered with beautiful yellow papilionaceous flowers (OED).
lass-lornAs the word "love-lorn" means having lost a lover, "lass-lorn" means having lost a "lass"--a girl or woman.
sea_Margin of the sea or the sea-coast.
arch_A rainbow, which is also the sign of Iris.
Ceres_The second spirit presented is Ceres, the fertility goddess of the harvest, motherhood and earth. She only participates in the masque after making sure that Venus and Cupid, the goddess and god of love responsible for the kidnapping of her daughter, do not make an appearance. This further establishes Prospero's demand that Miranda remain chaste until their union. This annotation is referenced from the "Hudson Shakespeare Company".
wife_Juno, the Greek goddess of marriage and the wife of Jupiter, the king of the gods.
bosky_As cited from the OED, bosky is defined as "Consisting of or covered with bushes or underwood; full of thickets, bushy".
bow_Iris is frequently depicted with a rainbow, or bow.
venus_ The Roman goddess of love, beauty, desire and fertility. She is also known as Aphrodite in the Greek mythology.
son_Ceres here is referring to Cupid, the Roman god of love, born to Venus and Mercury, the god of translators and interpreters.
Dis_Dis is another name for Pluto, god of the underworld. In mythology, he kidnaps Ceres' daughter Proserpina with help from Venus and Cupid, her 'blind' and 'waspish-headed' son of the next lines, who is typically depicted as blindly shooting his arrows of love. Ceres bargains with Pluto, and according to their deal, Proserpina spends half the year with her mother and half, with Pluto. During the spring and summer months, when mother and daughter are toogether, all is light and warmth; when Prosperpina is in the underworld, Ceres's sadness brings us the fall and winter months.
Paphos_The sacred home of the goddess Venus on the Island of Cyprus.
torch_Prospero is forbidding Ferdinand and Miranda from having sex before they are married, or before the torch of Hymen, the Greek God of marriage, is lit.
Juno_The third spirit enters the masque fashioned as Juno, the roman queen of the gods.
foison_An archaic term for abundance or bountiful supply (OED 1.a).
bowing_Plants bending from the weight of their growth.
nymphs_According to Britannica, nymphs are a class of low-ranking female deities from Greek mythology, often associated with sources of growing life such as trees and water. The Naiads presided over freshwater brooks, lakes, springs, and rivers.
varlets_According to the OED, a varlet was a term for a man or a young lad acting as a lowly servant. In this context however, Prospero uses it as an "abusive form of address" (OED 2.a).
tabour_Tabour/Tabor is an archaic term from the eleventh century for a small drum (OED).
frippery_A store where previously-owned but quality cloghing is sold (OED). Trinculo chides Caliban for not knowing the value of the clothing.
line_Stephano and Trinculo engage in a riff on the multiple meanings of the word "line." Here, Stephano is comically addressing the clothesline (or line) in a formal manner.
jerkin_A men's jacket made of leather either with sleaves or without, and having a short skirt. The historical equivalent of the waistcoat. (OED)
under_the_line_"Under the line" during this period was a reference to the equator (OED n, 10.b).
by_line_and_level_To do something by line and level means to do it methodically and with care (OED n, 4.b).
pass_ The OED defines 'pass of pate' as a "witty or cutting remark". In the literal sense, 'pate' was an archaic noun for the head or skull. Stephano creates his own pun Trinculo's clever wordplay.
lime_According to the OED, lime or birdlime is a sticky material from holly bark, mistletoe berries and other plants, used to capture birds by applying it to branches where they might alight.
spirits_These noises mimicking the sounds of animals are produced by the actors off-stage.
grove_ A small group of trees that provide shade (OED). Here, the grove is acting as a barrier for Prospero's cell.
eaves_Eaves is an Old English term, signifying the edge of the roof over a building which overhangs off the sides, made typically of straws or reeds (OED)
oped_According to the OED, oped is a transitive verb which means, " To open. Frequently of an eye, door, or window."
stand_Around this time, the actors who are yet transfixed by Prospero's sorcery enter the stage led by Ariel. Prospero then addresses each of the afflicted before releasing them from their state.
discase_Prospero, with Ariel's help, removes his magical robe and staff, and dresses himself in the clothes he had worn while he was still Duke of Milan perhaps to keep them in the dark about his association with the tempest. "Discase" literally means to take something out of its case, but colloquially it means to undress.
chronicle_It is a very long narrative to be recounted over the course of many days.
discovers_ A discovery space on the stage is an area enclosed by curtains which is used to reveal objects or characters. Sometimes the color of the curtains will also indicate the theme of the tale, as in the case of the tragedy Doctor Faustus where black curtains are sometimes used to signal the dark events of the play ("Reconstructing the Rose").
coragio_An exhortatory Italian exclamation for "Courage!" (OED)
sirrah_According to the OED, it's an archaic "term of address used to men or boys, expressing contempt, reprimand, or assumption of authority on the part of the speaker".
epilogue_An epilogue serves as a conclusionary poem or speech to a play, with the main purpose of tying up the many subplots and providing some closure for the characters at the end of the tale. It is usually performed in the form of a monologue in which applause is sought, addressed directly to the audience.